CRS Report for Congress
Economic Indicators: Country Comparisons
September 5, 2000
Shawn Waddoups
Research Associate
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress

Economic Indicators: Country Comparisons
Policymaking in this time of globalization often requires information about the
economic output of various countries, how those countries’ economies compare with
one another, and where the United States stands relative to the rest of the world. This
report provides a summary of output measures, explaining their strengths and
weaknesses, and various cross-country comparisons. It does not delve into any of
several other measures of economic performance that also may be of use depending
on the focus of a particular line of inquiry.
Although perhaps seemingly straight forward, comparing the economic output
of national economies can be complicated for several reasons. First, there are
different indicators to choose from when contrasting national economies. These
include gross national product (GNP), per capita GNP, purchasing power parity
(PPP) per capita GNP, and (for contrasting purposes) the human development index
(HDI). Each measure has relative strengths and weaknesses and no one measure
provides a complete picture for comparative purposes.
Second, while all country data originate from national governments, comparing
them raises numerous problems. The World Bank is a primary source for cross-
country economic (and social) data and is the source of data comparison used in this
report--with the exception of one table constructed from United Nations data. As a
single comprehensive source, the World Bank has many advantages: standardization,
reliability, and completeness. Perhaps most importantly, using a single consistent
source when comparing national economies reduces the possibility of distortion from
varying data collection and report methods that can occur when multiple sources are
being used.
According to these measures, the United States ranks first in total gross national
product (GNP), tenth in per capita GNP, fourth in per capita GNP adjusted for
purchasing power, and third using a broader indicator of economic and social well
After discussing the merits of various output measures, this report provides a
detailed comparison of economic output among the world’s economies, including
tables summarizing GNP, per capita GNP, PPP GNP, and HDI, along with
comparisons of selected countries by each category. This report concludes with a list
of sources and appendix of acronyms and abbreviations.

Statistical Data Sources...........................................1
Measures of National Economic Output...............................3
Gross National Product (GNP).................................4
Gross Domestic Product (GDP).................................5
Real GNP/GDP and Other Adjustments...........................5
Per Capita Measurement......................................6
Purchasing Power Parity Gross National Product (PPP GNP)..........7
Human Development Index (HDI)...............................8
Tables of National Economic Indicators...............................9
Gross National Product......................................10
Per Capita Gross National Product..............................11
Gross National Product Rankings...............................12
Per Capita GNP Rankings....................................13
Purchasing Power Parity Per Capita GNP Rankings.................14
Comparison of Various Measures..............................15
Human Development Index Rankings............................16
Sources for Statistical Tables..................................17
Appendix A. Acronyms and Abbreviations............................18

Economic Indicators: Country Comparisons
Congressional interest in international affairs frequently turns to cross-country
comparisons of economic performance. In particular, policymaking in this time of
globalization often requires information on the economic income and output of
various countries, how those countries’ economies compare with one another, and
where the United States stands relative to the rest of the world. This report responds
to this interest by presenting selected indicators of economic output, clarifying how
they are measured and interpreted, and providing comparative data among various
countries. It also presents one broader indicator of human development to highlight
the fact that economic output, although useful, is limited as a measure of economic1
and social well being. According to these measures, the United States ranks first in
total gross national product (GNP), tenth in per capita GNP, fourth in per capita GNP
adjusted for purchasing power, and third using a broader indicator of economic and
social well being.
Statistical Data Sources
International economic data is available from many reliable sources including: the
World Bank (WB); the International Monetary Fund (IMF); United Nations (U.N.);
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); and others.
This report relies heavily on data from the World Bank because it is a frequently-cited
source.2 In addition, even though it may appear at times that a domestic source
provides more current or accurate data (U.S. economic statistics, for example), the
World Bank is a highly accurate cross-national source known for its standardized,
reliable, and comprehensive information.
A single consistent data series allows for meaningful cross-country comparisons3
and the World Bank offers several advantages in this regard because its data:
!must be reported using a common methodology and standardized

1 The report does not delve into other broad macroeconomic and social indicators. For a
discussion of some, see CRS Report RL30449: Debt and Development in Poor Countries:
Rethinking Policy Responses, by J. F. Hornbeck. March 1, 2000. pp. 1-4. For inquiries
related to this report, contact Jeff Hornbeck.
2 World Bank data may be found in: World Development Indicators, World Development
Report, and World Development Indicators CD-ROM. Selected portions of the CD-ROM
are available on-line at []
3 World Bank. World Development Report 1999/2000, 2000, p. 227.

!reflect World Bank primary data collection efforts, working with
member country statistical sources;
!incorporate information from other international organizations and
research institutes such as the U.N., IMF and OECD, when
!reflect collective professional judgement regarding data reliability and
consistency, particularly with some (often smaller developing)
countries for which this would otherwise prove difficult;
!allow for meaningful ranking of countries by various measures. (A
note of caution, however. These are rankings of order only – the
rankings alone do not necessarily provide a complete indication of
the relative strength or weakness of national economies.)
Despite the World Bank’s concerted effort to provide consistent and accurate
data, collecting large quantities of information from many sources remains inherently
problematic. The World Bank points to the many local factors limiting data
usefulness, noting that “although international standards of coverage, definition, and
classification apply to most statistics reported by countries and international agencies,
there are inevitable differences in coverage, currentness, and the capabilities and
resources devoted to basic data collection and compilation.”4 When contrasting
economic indicators derived from various countries it is important to realize that
“Considerable effort has been made to standardize the data, but full compatibility
cannot be assured, and care must be taken in interpreting the indicators.”5
Care must also be taken in comparing figures collected by the World Bank with
those provided by other agencies. Mixing data from various reporting agencies may
reflect different collection methods and basic sources, and although the data may be
equally accurate, it may not be suitable for direct comparison. Data reported by
separate agencies may vary because of differences in definitions, methodology, and
Another source that this report uses is the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP). This organization publishes the human development index
(HDI), which is used as a broad measure of development contrasted herein with
narrower indicators of economic output. As discussed later, the rankings generated
by the human development index can vary greatly from those of the other indicators
in this report.

4 Ibid.
5 Ibid., p. 273

Measures of National Economic Output
There are several indicators that can be used to compare economic output across
countries. Two commonly used measures are gross national product (GNP) and per
capita gross national product. The World Bank has also developed a method called
purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita gross national product. Another helpful
measure in conducting cross-national comparisons is the UNDP’s Human
Development Index (HDI). Since the HDI uses PPP GNP per capita as one of its
variables, it is related to these other measures of output, but the comparison is
expanded by adding two social factors (life expectancy and education) to provide a
broader, although crude, measure of comparative development.
The several measures are not interchangeable. When comparing the output of
different countries, analysts must ensure that they are using identical figures from a
common source. Similarly, national rankings vary from measure to measure. For
example, the United States far outpaces all other countries in total GNP, but ranks
tenth in per capita GNP, fourth in PPP per capita GNP, and third in the HDI. Two
other examples, Russia and Gabon, illustrate even more dramatically how ranking can
vary depending on the measure used. The following chart shows the ranking for each
country in four different measures:
Chart 1. Economic Performance: A Comparison of Russia and Gabon
Measure Rank Measure Rank
GNP 16 th GNP 107 th
Per Capita GNP97thPer Capita GNP72nd
HDI 62 nd HDI 123 rd
Source: World Bank and United Nations (HDI).
The variation evident in these rankings is the product of several factors:
!In the case of Russia, the country remains one of the world’s largest
economies with a GNP ranking 16th, but that GNP is spread across
a large population, leading to a relatively low per capita GNP.
However, that is somewhat compensated for by the cost of living, as
shown by the higher ranking for PPP GNP. Furthermore, the HDI
rank indicates that Russian quality of life is somewhat higher than
what you would expect based on the per capita GNP ranking alone,
but considerably lower than the total GNP would seem to indicate;
!In the case of Gabon, the difference between the GNP and per capita
GNP ranks indicates that the country is producing more per person
than other countries with a similar GNP. However, the lower PPP

GNP per capita indicates that the cost of living in Gabon is high in
comparison to the per capita GNP. Perhaps most tellingly, the HDI
rank for Gabon is much lower than the per capita GNP would lead
one to believe it should be.
(See table 6, page 15, for a comparison of the top twenty countries ranked by overall
GNP, per capita GNP and per capita PPP GNP.)
These cases emphasize the importance of looking to various economic indicators
when comparing countries. Depending on which measure is used, a country may rank
higher or lower on a relative scale.
Gross National Product (GNP)
GNP is the broadest measure of economic output by one nation. It is “the value
of final goods and services produced by domestically owned factors of production
within a given time period.”6 It is reported as an annual rate. A particular country’s
GNP is the sum of the output generated by domestically-owned enterprises plus
profits earned abroad by foreign subsidiaries of domestic parent companies and
returned to the home country. GNP also accounts for taxes (less subsidies) that are
not counted as part of the production.7 It does not include the profits generated by
foreign-owned corporations or individuals and taken out of the country. The World
Bank uses the output approach to measure a country’s GNP (rather than the demand
approach or total purchases plus inventory accumulation).8 In broad terms, this
method measures the value added at each stage of a good’s production.
For comparative purposes, the World Bank converts all GNP figures into U.S.
dollars. The Bank uses its Atlas Method of conversion to minimize the impact of
currency fluctuations.9 Instead of using the exchange rate of the dollar against a
particular country’s currency on a given day, the Atlas Method takes an average
exchange rate over the previous three years to calculate the current value in dollars
for the country’s GNP. Fluctuations in the dollar’s value can sometimes give the
impression of growth or recession in foreign economies when, in fact, the changes are
caused by variations in the dollar’s worth relative to the local currency.
(See table 1, page 10, for an alphabetical listing of countries and their GNP. See
table 3, page 12, for country rankings by GNP.)

6 Dornbusch, Rudiger, and Stanley Fischer. 1994. Macroeconomics Sixth Edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill. p. 31.
7 World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 1999/2000. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 274.
8 World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 1999/2000. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 274.
9 For a discussion of the Atlas Method of currency conversion, see the World Development
Report 1999/2000, p. 287-288.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
GDP is similar in nature to GNP, but measures all production within the borders
of one country. Formally defined, it is “the value of all final goods and services
produced in the country within a given time period,”10 usually one year. Production
by all firms, governments and individuals, regardless of their national origin, is11
counted in the GDP. This means that the production of British companies and
Japanese citizens operating in the United States are measured as part of the U.S.
GDP. Similarly, the production of American firms operating in Brazil is not counted
as part of the U.S. GDP, but as part of the Brazilian GDP. The United States began12
using GDP to measure domestic economic performance in December 1991.
GNP and GDP both reflect the output of national economies in terms of market
prices, so inflation can distort the picture over the long run. Therefore, when
evaluating the growth in either GNP or GDP, it is important to use figures that are
adjusted for inflation, known as real GNP or real GDP. For international
comparisons, the adjustment for inflation is calculated using deflators published by the
International Monetary Fund.
Real GNP/GDP and Other Adjustments
Both GNP and GDP measure the value of products that are bought and sold in
the marketplace. Measuring only market transactions leads to undercounting because
of the following:
!GNP and GDP measure only the formal economy. In most developed
countries, this is a limited concern. In many developing countries,
however, the informal economy or the exchange of goods and
services between individuals “off the books” plays an important role
in and composes a significant share of the “actual” economy. There
have been attempts to measure the contribution of the informal
economy to national production, but a significant portion of some
national economies goes unmeasured by GNP or GDP.
!Neither GNP nor GDP measures the value of services or goods that
individuals provide for themselves. If that same good or service is
provided in the marketplace, these measures do capture its value.
Thus, GNP and GDP fail to capture the output generated by self-
!GNP and GDP also fail to measure the value of leisure time to
consumers or the value of a clean environment. Although these may

10 Dornbusch, Rudiger, and Stanley Fischer. 1994. Macroeconomics Sixth Edition. New
York: McGraw-Hill. p. 29.
11 Ibid, p. 29-30.
12 Executive Office of the President. Council of Economic Advisors. 1992 Economic Report
of the President. Washington, D.C.: GPO. p. 246.

enhance the quality of life, GNP and GDP do not reflect this value to
!Countries that receive high levels of foreign aid have infusions into
their economy that are not measured by GNP or GDP. Thus, the
consumption level can be much higher than either of these measures
of production would suggest.
The major difference between GNP and GDP is what is included in calculating
the figures (in technical terms, net foreign factor income). As noted above, the U.S.
government now uses GDP to track the performance of the domestic economy. The
switch from GNP to GDP was made because “GDP corresponds more closely to
other indicators of domestic short-term economic performance.”13 However, the
World Bank continues to use GNP to make cross-country economic comparisons.14
This is important to note. The comparison of one country’s GDP with another
country’s GNP can present a distorted picture, especially if there is a large difference
in the level of income taken out of or brought into the two countries.
For some countries, there is little difference between the level of GNP and GDP.
This is true in most industrialized countries, such as the United States, because
domestic firms return approximately the same amount of income from abroad as
foreign firms derive from the local economy. For developing countries, however,
there can be a substantial difference between the two measures for two reasons:
!Some countries have many citizens who work abroad. High levels
of international earnings can cause GNP to be higher than GDP.
!Other countries have high levels of foreign investment in their
economy with little or no corresponding investment abroad. This can
lead to large profits being repatriated without the balancing effect of
foreign earnings flowing back into the local economy. In this15
situation, GNP may be low in relation to GDP.
Per Capita Measurement
Demographic factors can also complicate cross-country economic comparisons.
Contrasting the overall GNP of the United States ($7.9 trillion) with the next largest
economy in the world, Japan ($4.1 trillion), shows that the U.S. GNP is almost twice
that of Japan’s. But this does not take into consideration that the population of the
United States (270 million) is roughly twice that of Japan’s (126 million). GNP is
useful when considering geopolitical and strategic policies. It is an indicator of the

13 Executive Office of the President. Council of Economic Advisors. 1992 Economic Report
of the President. Washington, D.C.: GPO. p. 248.
14 World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 1999/2000. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 274.
15 Executive Office of the President. Council of Economic Advisors. 1992 Economic Report
of the President. Washington, D.C.: GPO. p. 246.

total strength and mobilization potential of a nation. GNP is less useful when
considering questions of individual standard of living or marketing potential. In these
cases, a more accurate comparison between two countries is the amount of
production per person. This is called per capita GNP.
Per capita GNP is derived by dividing the overall GNP by the population of the
country. Using per capita figures allows meaningful comparisons between countries
that vary greatly in population. Returning to the example of the United States and
Japan, Japanese per capita GNP is actually higher than that of the United States--
$32,350 versus $29,240. But neither country ranks first in per capita GNP--Japan
ranks seventh and the United States tenth in the world. Luxembourg has the highest16
per capita GNP with $45,100 (but obviously has little geopolitical power).
Per capita GNP does have its shortcomings, however. It does not measure how
well the production of a particular country is distributed across its population, how
much an individual could purchase with the per capita GNP amount, or the level of
development in the country. It also fails to reflect the differences in the quality of life
enjoyed by the inhabitants of different countries. Although the per capita GNP of
Japan is greater than that of the United States, housing costs, a major quality of life
consideration, are also much higher. This, to some extent, negates the difference
between the two countries. Other factors, such as the cost of food, clothing, and
commuting, also escape the calculations of per capita GNP. These differences in
costs can be accounted for by adjusting GNP for differences in purchasing power.
(See table 2, page 11, for an alphabetical listing of countries and their per capita GNP.
See table 4, page 13, for country rankings by per capita GNP.)
Purchasing Power Parity Gross National Product (PPP GNP)
PPP GNP adjusts GNP to account for how much people can buy for their money
in a given country. The PPP GNP can be divided by population to determine it on a
per capita basis. Instead of simply measuring total output, the PPP GNP method
attempts to gauge how much a person would have to pay in the local currency for a
set basket of goods. That amount is then converted to the equivalent value in U.S.
dollars, sometimes also called international dollars, so that analysts can make cross-
country standard of living comparisons. This procedure compensates somewhat for
the fact that exchange rates do not always accurately reflect differences in relative
prices. PPP rates facilitate a comparison of real price levels among countries.17
PPP GNP per capita is a crude measure. Although it does allow standard of
living comparisons, it does not accurately represent the actual amount of personal
income in U.S. dollars available in the foreign country. It reflects how much it costs
to buy a set of goods in a particular country or how much income the average

16 World Bank, 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM (GNP per capita 1998, Atlas
method and PPP). Available at [
17 World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 1999/2000. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 274.

individual from that country would have were he to buy that set of goods in the
United States. Also, it does not consider that norms related to such things as housing
and transportation can vary greatly among countries. It does measure the
comparative cost of living in various countries, but still does not completely portray
the amount of goods that individuals can purchase with their local currency salaries.18
(See table 5, page 14, for country rankings by per capita PPP GNP.)
Human Development Index (HDI)
Additionally, this report includes a listing of world ranking based on the human
development index. This measure, developed by the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), is a departure from the other measures discussed in this paper
because it is not a simple indicator of economic output and income nor is it a World
Bank statistic. It was originally developed as an alternative measure of development,
serving to supplement indicators such as GNP. One of the HDI’s developers,
Mahbub ul Haq, describes it as a measure “of the same level of vulgarity as GNP--
just one measure--but a measure that is not blind to social aspects of human life as19
GNP is.”
This approach emphasizes that economic factors are not the only factors that
affect an individual’s standard of living. The HDI takes into account two other20
factors that play a role in how well the average person lives in a particular country.
The HDI incorporates three variables to estimate a country’s standard of living:
life expectancy; educational attainment; and income. Life expectancy is measured as
longevity from birth. Educational attainment is measured by joining the adult literacy
rate with a combined score for gross primary, secondary, and tertiary school
enrollment ratios. Income is taken as per capita PPP GNP.21 These values are then
used to compute a score between 0 and 1 for each country.22 The closer to one on
the scale, the higher the level of development.
One way to apply the HDI is in concert with the per capita PPP GNP. Because
per capita PPP GNP is part of the HDI index, if a country has a higher HDI rank than
per capita PPP GNP rank, for example, the UNDP concludes that the country is using
its income (resources) efficiently to meet development goals. Ninety-seven of the 174
countries the UNDP evaluated ranked higher in the HDI than per capita PPP GNP.
Conversely, sixty-nine of the countries had a lower HDI rank than per capita PPP

18 For more on PPP GNP and other development measures, CRS Report 97-759 F.
Comparing Countries’ Levels of Development, by Jonathan E. Sanford.
19 United Nations Development Programme. 1999. Human Development Report 1999. New
York: Oxford University Press. p. 23.
20 United Nations Development Programme. 2000. Human Development Report 2000. New
York: Oxford University Press.
21 Ibid. p. 144-145.
22 For further discussion of the method used to calculate HDI scores, see the technical note in
the UNDP’s Human Development Report 2000.

GNP rank, indicating that there are some inefficiencies in converting economic output
into a higher standard of living.23
Because of the inclusion of other variables, countries with similar per capita PPP
GNP levels can have very different HDI scores. On the other hand, countries with
widely different per capita PPP GNP levels can have similar HDI scores. The UNDP
acknowledges that the HDI is a very rough estimator of a country’s standard of living.
However, the HDI is a simple enough measure to allow meaningful comparison
among countries without becoming bogged down in regional or cultural differences.
The UNDP has created other indexes to measure national standards of living in light
of gender, poverty and equality issues. However, the HDI is the most widely used of
these indexes.
(See table 7, page 16, for a listing of countries ranked by HDI levels.)
Tables of National Economic Indicators
The following tables contain information compiled from World Bank and the
Untied Nations Development Programme publications. Full source citations are
included following the tables.
The tables are meant as a quick reference only. For a more comprehensive and
extended treatment of the subject, please refer to the source publication.

23 United Nations Development Programme. 2000. Human Development Report 2000. New
York: Oxford University Press. p. 148.

Table 1
Gross National Product
(In billions of U.S. dollars as of 1998)
GNP Rank GNP Rank GNP Rank
Albania 2.7 135 Germany 2179.8 3 Norway 152.1 25
Algeria 46.4 51 Ghana 7.3 96 Pakistan 61.5 44
Angola 4.6 115 Greece 123.4 32 Panama 8.3 90
Antigua and Barbuda0.6182Grenada0.3192Papua New Guinea4.1120
Argentina 290.3 17 Guatemala 17.8 71 Paraguay 9.2 87
Armenia 1.7 155 Guinea 3.8 125 Peru 60.5 45
Australia 387 14 Guinea-Bissau 0.2 200 Philippines 78.9 41
Austria 216.7 21 Guyana 0.7 179 Poland 151.3 26
Azerbaijan 3.8 123 Haiti 3.2 131 Portugal 106.4 33
Bahrain 4.9 108 Honduras 4.6 116 Romania 30.6 59
Bangladesh44.253Hong Kong, China158.224Russian Federation331.816
Barbados 2.1 145 Hungary 45.6 52 Rwanda 1.9 150
Belarus 22.3 62 Iceland 7.6 95 Samoa 0.2 201
Belgium25919India427.411Saudi Arabia143.427
Belize 0.6 180 Indonesia 130.6 30 Senegal 4.7 112
Benin2.3141Iran, Islamic Rep.102.234Seychelles0.5184
Bhutan0.4190Ireland69.343Sierra Leone0.7175
Bolivia 8 93 Israel 96.5 36 Singapore 95.5 37
Botswana4.8111Italy11576Slovak Rep.19.966
Brazil 767.6 8 Jamaica 4.5 117 Slovenia 19.4 67
Bulgaria10.184Japan4089.12Sao Tome & Principe0.04206
Burkina Faso2.6138Jordan5.3106Solomon Islands0.3191
Burundi0.9170Kazakhstan20.963South Africa136.928
Cambodia 2.9 132 Kenya 10.2 82 Spain 555.2 10
Cameroon8.789Kiribati0.1203Sri Lanka15.275
Canada580.99Korea, Rep.398.812St. Kitts and Nevis0.3195
Cape Verde0.5185Kyrgyz Rep.1.8152St. Lucia0.6183
Central African Rep.1.1166Lao PDR1.6159St.Vincent&Grenadines0.3194
Chad 1.7 157 Latvia 5.9 102 Sudan 8.2 91
Chile 73.9 42 Lebanon 15 76 Suriname 0.7 176
China 923.6 7 Lesotho 1.2 164 Swaziland 1.4 162
Colombia 100.7 35 Lithuania 9.4 86 Sweden 226.5 20
Comoros 0.2 199 Luxembourg 19.2 68 Switzerland 284.1 18
Congo, Dem. Rep.5.4104Macedonia, FYR2.6137Syrian Arab Rep.15.574
Congo, Rep.1.9149Madagascar3.7126Tajikistan2.3140
Costa Rica9.885Malta3.8124Tanzania7.298
Cote d'Ivoire10.283Marshall Islands0.1204Thailand131.929
Croatia 20.7 64 Malawi 2.2 142 Togo 1.5 160
Cyprus 9 88 Malaysia 81.3 39 Tonga 0.2 202
Czech Rep.5348Maldives0.3193Trinidad & Tobago5.8103
Denmark 175.2 23 Mali 2.6 136 Tunisia 19.2 69
Dominica 0.2 197 Mauritania 1 167 Turkey 200.5 22
Dominican Rep.14.677Mauritius4.3118Uganda6.699
Ecuador 18.5 70 Mexico 368.1 15 Ukraine 49.2 49
Egypt, Arab Rep.79.240Micronesia, Fed. Sts.0.2198United Arab Emirates48.750
El Salvador11.280Moldova1.7158United Kingdom1264.35
Equatorial Guinea0.5187Mongolia1168United States79031
Eritrea 0.8 174 Morocco 34.4 56 Uruguay 19.9 65
Estonia 4.9 110 Mozambique 3.5 127 Uzbekistan 22.9 61
Ethiopia 6.2 101 Namibia 3.2 129 Vanuatu 0.2 196
Fiji 1.7 154 Nepal 4.9 109 Venezuela 82.1 38
Finland 125.1 31 Netherlands 389.1 13 Vietnam 26.5 60
France1465.44New Zealand55.446West Bank & Gaza4.3119
Gabon4.9107Nicaragua1.8153Yemen, Rep.4.6114
Gambia, The0.4189Niger2146Zambia3.2128
Georgia 5.2 105 Nigeria 36.4 55 Zimbabwe 7.2 97

Table 2
Per Capita Gross National Product
(In 1998 U.S. dollars)
Albania 810 139 Germany 26,570 13 Nigeria 300 181
Algeria 1550 113 Ghana 390 164 Norway 34,310 4
Angola 380 165 Greece 11,740 46 Pakistan 470 158
Antigua and Barbuda8,45052Grenada3,25084Panama2,99088
Argentina8,03055Guatemala1,640111Papua New Guinea890138
Armenia 460 160 Guinea 530 154 Paraguay 1,760 106
Australia 20,640 23 Guinea-Bissau 160 201 Peru 2,440 94
Austria 26,830 12 Guyana 780 141 Philippines 1,050 132
Azerbaijan 480 156 Haiti 410 162 Poland 3,910 74
Bahrain 7,640 58 Honduras 740 146 Portugal 10,670 48
Bangladesh350173Hong Kong, China23,66021Romania1,360119
Barbados7,890..Hungary4,51071Russian Federation2,26097
Belarus 2,180 99 Iceland 27,830 11 Rwanda 230 192
Belgium 25,380 15 India 440 161 Samoa 1,070 131
Belize2,66090Indonesia640149Saudi Arabia6,91060
Benin380165Iran, Islamic Rep.1,650110Senegal520155
Bhutan 470 158 Ireland 18,710 27 Seychelles 6,420 62
Bolivia1,010134Israel16,18032Sierra Leone140202
Botswana 3,070 87 Italy 20,090 25 Singapore 30,170 9
Brazil4,63068Jamaica1,740108Slovak Rep.3,70077
Bulgaria 1,220 125 Japan 32,350 7 Slovenia 9,780 50
Burkina Faso240191Jordan1,150128Sao Tome & Principe270186
Burundi140202Kazakhstan1,340120Solomon Islands760144
Cambodia260187Kenya350173South Africa3,31083
Cameroon 610 152 Kiribati 1,170 127 Spain 14,100 39
Canada19,17026Korea, Rep.8,60051Sri Lanka810139
Cape Verde1,200126Kyrgyz Rep.380165St. Kitts and Nevis6,19063
Central African Rep.300181Lao PDR320179St. Lucia3,66079
Chad230192Latvia2,42095St.Vincent & Grenadines2,56091
Chile 4,990 66 Lebanon 3,560 80 Sudan 290 183
China 750 145 Lesotho 570 153 Suriname 1,660 109
Colombia 2,470 93 Lithuania 2,540 92 Swaziland 1,400 118
Comoros 370 170 Luxembourg 45,100 1 Sweden 25,580 14
Congo, Dem. Rep.110205Macedonia, FYR1,290121Switzerland39,9803
Congo, Rep.680148Madagascar260187Syrian Arab Rep.1,020133
Costa Rica2,77089Malawi210195Tajikistan370170
Cote d'Ivoire700147Malaysia3,67078Tanzania220194
Croatia 4,620 69 Maldives 1,130 129 Thailand 2,160 100
Cyprus 11,920 44 Mali 250 189 Togo 330 177
Czech Rep.5,15065Malta10,10049Tonga1,750107
Denmark33,0406Marshall Islands1,540114Trinidad & Tobago4,52070
Dominica 3,150 86 Mauritania 410 162 Tunisia 2,060 101
Dominican Rep.1,770105Mauritius3,73076Turkey3,16085
Ecuador 1,520 116 Mexico 3,840 75 Uganda 310 180
Egypt, Arab Rep.1,290121Micronesia, Fed. Sts.1,800104Ukraine980135
El Salvador1,850103Moldova380165United Arab Emirates17,87028
Equatorial Guinea1,110130Monaco..16United Kingdom21,41022
Eritrea200198Mongolia380165United States29,24010
Estonia 3,360 82 Morocco 1,240 124 Uruguay 6,070 64
Ethiopia 100 206 Mozambique 210 195 Uzbekistan 950 137
Fiji 2,210 98 Namibia 1,940 102 Vanuatu 1,260 123
Finland 24,280 19 Nepal 210 195 Venezuela 3,530 81
France 24,210 20 Netherlands 24,780 17 Vietnam 350 173
Gabon4,17072New Zealand14,60036West Bank & Gaza1,560112
Gambia, The340176Nicaragua370170Yemen, Rep.280185
Georgia 970 136 Niger 200 198 Zambia 330 177
Zimbabwe 620 150

Table 3
Gross National Product Rankings
(In billions of U.S. Dollars as of 1998)
GNP Rank GNP Rank GNP Rank
United States79031Uzbekistan22.961Zambia3.2128
Japan 4089.1 2 Belarus 22.3 62 Namibia 3.2 129
Germany 2179.8 3 Kazakhstan 20.9 63 Haiti 3.2 131
France 1465.4 4 Croatia 20.7 64 Cambodia 2.9 132
United Kingdom1264.35Uruguay19.965Albania2.7135
Italy11576Slovak Rep.19.966Mali2.6136
China923.67Slovenia19.467Macedonia, FYR2.6137
Brazil767.68Luxembourg19.268Burkina Faso2.6138
Canada 580.9 9 Tunisia 19.2 69 Tajikistan 2.3 140
Spain 555.2 10 Ecuador 18.5 70 Benin 2.3 141
India 427.4 11 Guatemala 17.8 71 Malawi 2.2 142
Korea, Rep.398.812Syrian Arab Rep.15.574Barbados2.1145
Netherlands389.113Sri Lanka15.275Niger2146
Australia38714Lebanon1576Congo, Rep.1.9149
Mexico368.115Dominican Rep.14.677Rwanda1.9150
Russian Federation331.816El Salvador11.280Kyrgyz Rep.1.8152
Argentina 290.3 17 Kenya 10.2 82 Nicaragua 1.8 153
Switzerland284.118Cote d'Ivoire10.283Fiji1.7154
Belgium 259 19 Bulgaria 10.1 84 Armenia 1.7 155
Sweden226.520Costa Rica9.885Chad1.7157
Austria 216.7 21 Lithuania 9.4 86 Moldova 1.7 158
Turkey200.522Paraguay9.287Lao PDR1.6159
Denmark 175.2 23 Cyprus 9 88 Togo 1.5 160
Hong Kong, China158.224Cameroon8.789Swaziland1.4162
Norway 152.1 25 Panama 8.3 90 Lesotho 1.2 164
Poland151.326Sudan8.291Central African Rep.1.1166
Saudi Arabia143.427Bolivia893Mauritania1167
South Africa136.928Iceland7.695Mongolia1168
Thailand 131.9 29 Ghana 7.3 96 Burundi 0.9 170
Indonesia 130.6 30 Zimbabwe 7.2 97 Eritrea 0.8 174
Finland125.131Tanzania7.298Sierra Leone0.7175
Greece 123.4 32 Uganda 6.6 99 Suriname 0.7 176
Portugal 106.4 33 Ethiopia 6.2 101 Guyana 0.7 179
Iran, Islamic Rep.102.234Latvia5.9102Belize0.6180
Colombia100.735Trinidad and Tobago5.8103Antigua & Barbuda0.6182
Israel96.536Congo, Dem. Rep.5.4104St. Lucia0.6183
Singapore 95.5 37 Georgia 5.2 105 Seychelles 0.5 184
Venezuela82.138Jordan5.3106Cape Verde0.5185
Malaysia81.339Gabon4.9107Equatorial Guinea0.5187
Egypt, Arab Rep.79.240Bahrain4.9108Gambia, The0.4189
Philippines 78.9 41 Nepal 4.9 109 Bhutan 0.4 190
Chile73.942Estonia4.9110Solomon Islands0.3191
Ireland 69.3 43 Botswana 4.8 111 Grenada 0.3 192
Pakistan 61.5 44 Senegal 4.7 112 Maldives 0.3 193
Peru60.545Yemen, Rep.4.6114St.Vincent & Grenadines0.3194
New Zealand55.446Angola4.6115St. Kitts and Nevis0.3195
Czech Rep.5348Honduras4.6116Vanuatu0.2196
Ukraine 49.2 49 Jamaica 4.5 117 Dominica 0.2 197
United Arab Emirates48.750Mauritius4.3118Micronesia, Fed. States0.2198
Algeria46.451West Bank and Gaza4.3119Comoros0.2199
Hungary45.652Papua New Guinea4.1120Guinea-Bissau0.2200
Bangladesh 44.2 53 Azerbaijan 3.8 123 Samoa 0.2 201
Nigeria 36.4 55 Malta 3.8 124 Tonga 0.2 202
Morocco 34.4 56 Guinea 3.8 125 Kiribati 0.1 203
Romania30.659Madagascar3.7126Marshall Islands0.1204
Vietnam26.560Mozambique3.5127Sao Tome & Principe0.04206

Table 4
Per Capita GNP Rankings
(All figures in 1998 U.S. dollars)
Luxembourg 45,100 1 Venezuela 3530 81 Guyana 780 141
Liechtenstein..2Estonia336082Solomon Islands760144
Switzerland39,9803South Africa331083China750145
Norway 34,310 4 Grenada 3250 84 Honduras 740 146
Bermuda..5Turkey316085Cote d'Ivoire700147
Denmark33,0406Dominica315086Congo, Rep.680148
Japan 32,350 7 Botswana 3070 87 Indonesia 640 149
Cayman Islands..8Panama299088Zimbabwe620150
Singapore30,1709Costa Rica277089Cameroon610152
United States29,24010Belize266090Lesotho570153
Iceland27,83011St. Vincent &256091Guinea530154
Austria 26,830 12 Lithuania 2540 92 Senegal 520 155
Germany 26,570 13 Colombia 2470 93 Azerbaijan 480 156
Sweden 25,580 14 Peru 2440 94 Pakistan 470 158
Belgium 25,380 15 Latvia 2420 95 Bhutan 470 158
Monaco..16Russian Federation226097Armenia460160
Netherlands 24,780 17 Fiji 2210 98 India 440 161
Brunei .. 18 Belarus 2180 99 Mauritania 410 162
Finland 24,280 19 Thailand 2160 100 Haiti 410 162
France 24,210 20 Tunisia 2060 101 Ghana 390 164
Hong Kong, China23,66021Namibia1940102Mongolia380165
United Kingdom21,41022El Salvador1850103Moldova380165
Australia20,64023Micronesia, Fed. Sts.1800104Benin380165
Italy2009025Dominican Rep.1770105Angola380165
Canada1917026Paraguay1760106Kyrgyz Rep.380165
Ireland 18710 27 Tonga 1750 107 Tajikistan 370 170
United Arab Emirates1787028Jamaica1740108Comoros370170
Israel 16180 32 Suriname 1660 109 Nicaragua 370 170
New Zealand1460036Iran, Islamic Rep.1650110Vietnam350173
Spain 14100 39 Guatemala 1640 111 Bangladesh 350 173
Cyprus1192044West Bank & Gaza1560112Kenya350173
Greece1174046Algeria1550113Gambia, The340176
Portugal1067048Marshall Islands1540114Togo330177
Malta 10100 49 Ecuador 1520 116 Zambia 330 177
Slovenia978050Swaziland1400118Lao PDR320179
Korea, Rep.860051Romania1360119Uganda310180
Antigua & Barbuda845052Kazakhstan1340120Nigeria300181
Argentina803055Macedonia, FYR1290121Central African Rep.300181
Bahrain764058Egypt, Arab Rep.1290121Sudan290183
Saudi Arabia691060Vanuatu1260123Yemen, Rep.280185
Seychelles642062Morocco1240124Sao Tome & Principe270186
St. Kitts and Nevis619063Bulgaria1220125Cambodia260187
Uruguay607064Cape Verde1200126Madagascar260187
Czech Rep.515065Kiribati1170127Mali250189
Chile499066Jordan1150128Burkina Faso240191
Brazil 4630 68 Maldives 1130 129 Rwanda 230 192
Croatia462069Equatorial Guinea1110130Chad230192
Trinidad and Tobago452070Samoa1070131Tanzania220194
Hungary 4510 71 Philippines 1050 132 Malawi 210 195
Gabon417072Syrian Arab Rep.1020133Nepal210195
Poland 3910 74 Bolivia 1010 134 Mozambique 210 195
Mexico 3840 75 Ukraine 980 135 Niger 200 198
Mauritius 3730 76 Georgia 970 136 Eritrea 200 198
Slovak Rep.370077Uzbekistan950137Guinea-Bissau160201
Malaysia367078Papua New Guinea890138Burundi140202
St. Lucia366079Sri Lanka810139Sierra Leone140202
Lebanon356080Albania810139Congo, Dem. Rep.110205
Ethiopia 100 206

Table 5
Purchasing Power Parity Per Capita GNP Rankings
(In 1998 international dollars)
Luxembourg367031Turkey659479Kyrgyz Rep.2247143
Liechtenstein .. 2 Brazil 6460 80 Bolivia 2205 146
Bermuda..3Belarus631481Papua New Guinea2205147
United States292404Lithuania628382Lesotho2194148
Cayman Islands..5Russian Federation618083Azerbaijan2168149
Switzerland 26876 6 Colombia 5861 84 Armenia 2074 150
Norway261967Costa Rica581285India2060151
Singapore 25295 8 Botswana 5796 86 Uzbekistan 2044 152
Monaco .. 9 Latvia 5777 87 Moldova 1995 153
Brunei2488610Venezuela570688Solomon Islands1904155
Iceland 24774 11 Gabon 5615 89 Nicaragua 1896 156
Denmark 23855 12 Romania 5572 90 Ghana 1735 157
Belgium 23622 13 Grenada 5557 91 Guinea 1722 158
Japan 23592 14 Thailand 5524 92 Vietnam 1689 159
Austria2314515Namibia528093Lao PDR1683160
Malta 22901 16 Tunisia 5169 94 Pakistan 1652 161
Canada2281417Iran, Islamic Rep.512195Mauritania1500163
Netherlands2232518Panama492596Cote d'Ivoire1484164
Germany2202619St. Lucia489797Mongolia1463165
Australia 21795 20 Dominica 4777 99 Bhutan 1438 166
France2121422Bulgaria4683100Gambia, The1428167
Hong Kong, China2076323Algeria4595101Bangladesh1407168
Finland2064124St. Vincent &4484102Comoros1400169
Italy 20365 25 Belize 4367 103 Cameroon 1395 170
United Kingdom2031426Dominican Rep.4337104Haiti1379171
Sweden 19848 27 Kazakhstan 4317 105 Togo 1352 172
United Arab Emirates1887131Paraguay4312106Senegal1297173
Ireland1799133Macedonia, FYR4224107Sao Tome & Principe1289174
Cyprus 17599 36 Swaziland 4195 108 Cambodia 1246 175
Israel 16861 38 Tonga 4187 109 Sudan 1240 176
New Zealand1608441Peru4180110Nepal1181177
Spain1596043Lebanon4144111Central African Rep.1098179
Portugal 14569 46 Fiji 4094 112 Uganda 1072 180
Slovenia1440048El Salvador4008114Tajikistan1041181
Greece 13994 49 Kiribati 3880 115 Angola 999 183
Bahamas, The1399050Samoa3854116Eritrea984184
Korea, Rep.1328651Philippines3725118Kenya964186
Czech Rep.1219752Guatemala3474122Burkina Faso866188
Argentina 11728 53 Maldives 3436 123 Benin 857 189
Bahrain1155655Georgia3429124Congo, Rep.846190
Saudi Arabia1049860Jamaica3344126Chad843191
Seychelles1018562Cape Verde3192127Madagascar741192
Hungary 9832 63 Morocco 3188 128 Mozambique 740 193
St. Kitts and Nevis979064Egypt, Arab Rep.3146129Nigeria740194
Slovak Rep.962465Guyana3139130Congo, Dem. Rep.733195
Antigua and Barbuda889066Ukraine3130131Niger729196
Uruguay 8541 67 China 3051 132 Zambia 678 198
Chile 8507 68 Ecuador 3003 133 Mali 673 199
South Africa829669Sri Lanka2945134Yemen, Rep.658200
Mauritius 8236 70 Vanuatu 2892 135 Guinea-Bissau 573 201
Malaysia 7699 72 Albania 2864 137 Ethiopia 566 202
Estonia756373Syrian Arab Rep.2702138Burundi561203
Poland 7543 74 Jordan 2615 139 Malawi 551 204
Mexico 7450 75 Zimbabwe 2489 140 Tanzania 483 205
Trinidad and Tobago720876Indonesia2407141Sierra Leone445206
Croatia 6698 78 Honduras 2338 142

Table 6
Comparison of Various Measures
GNP Per Capita GNP Per Capita PPP GNP
Rank($US Billions - 1998)Rank($US Thousands - 1998)Rank($Int'l. Thousands - 1998)
1United States7903.01Luxembourg45,1001Luxembourg36,703

2 Japan 4089.1 2 Liechtenstein .. 2 Liechtenstein* ..

3 Germany 2179.8 3 Switzerland 39,980 3 Bermuda* ..

4France1465.44Norway34,3104United States29,240

5United Kingdom1264.35Bermuda*..5Cayman Islands*..

6 Italy 1157.0 6 Denmark 33,040 6 Switzerland 26,876
7 China 923.6 7 Japan 32,350 7 Norway 26,196
8Brazil767.68Cayman Islands*..8Singapore25,295

9 Canada 580.9 9 Singapore 30,170 9 Monaco* ..

10Spain555.210United States29,24010Brunei24,886
11 India 427.4 11 Iceland 27,830 11 Iceland 24,774
12Korea, Rep.398.812Austria26,83012Denmark23,855
13 Netherlands 389.1 13 Germany 26,570 13 Belgium 23,622
14 Australia 387.0 14 Sweden 25,580 14 Japan 23,592
15 Mexico 368.1 15 Belgium 25,380 15 Austria 23,145
16 Russia 331.8 16 Monaco* .. 16 Malta 22,901
17 Argentina 290.3 17 Netherlands 24,780 17 Canada 22,814
18 Switzerland 284.1 18 Brunei .. 18 Netherlands 22,325
19 Belgium 259.0 19 Finland 24,280 19 Germany 22,026
20 Sweden 226.5 20 France 24,210 20 Australia 21,795
* Indicates that the World Bank does not have reliable data for this country, but ranks it in an estimated

Per Capita GNPGNPPer Capita PPP GNP
LuxembourgU. S.Luxembourg
Liechtenstein*Japan Liechtenstein*
SwitzerlandGermany Bermuda*
NorwayFranceU. S.
Bermuda*U. K.Cayman Is.*
DenmarkItaly Switzerland
JapanChina Norway
Cayman Is.*BrazilSingapore
SingaporeCanada Monaco*
U. S.SpainBrunei
IcelandIndia Iceland
AustriaKorea, Rep.Denmark
GermanyNetherlands Belgium
SwedenAustralia Japan
BelgiumMexico Austria
Monaco*Russia Malta
NetherlandsArgentina Canada
Brunei*Switzerland Netherlands
FinlandBelgium Germany
FranceSweden Australia
2550040008000020401998 Intl Dollars (Thousands)
1998 U.S. Dollars (Thousands)1998 U.S. Dollars (Billions)

Table 7
Human Development Index Rankings
Canada 0.935 1 Panama 0.776 59 Mongolia 0.628 117
Norway 0.934 2 Bulgaria 0.772 60 Vanuatu 0.623 118
United States0.9293Malaysia0.77261Egypt0.623119
Australia0.9294Russian Federation0.77162Guatemala0.619120
Iceland0.9275Latvia0.77163Solomon Islands0.614121
Sweden 0.926 6 Romania 0.770 64 Botswana 0.593 122
Belgium 0.925 7 Venezuela 0.770 65 Gabon 0.592 123
Netherlands 0.925 8 Fiji 0.769 66 Morocco 0.589 124
Japan 0.924 9 Suriname 0.766 67 Myanmar 0.585 125
United Kingdom0.91810Colombia0.76468Iraq0.583126
Finland0.91711Macedonia, FYR0.76369Lesotho0.569127
France 0.917 12 Georgia 0.762 70 India 0.563 128
Switzerland 0.915 13 Mauritius 0.761 71 Ghana 0.556 129
Germany 0.911 14 Libya 0.760 72 Zimbabwe 0.555 130
Denmark0.91115Kazakhstan0.75473Equatorial Guinea0.555131
Austria0.90816Brazil0.74774Sao Tome & Principe0.547132
Luxembourg0.90817Saudi Arabia0.74775Papua New Guinea0.542133
Ireland 0.907 18 Thailand 0.745 76 Cameroon 0.528 134
Italy 0.903 19 Philippines 0.744 77 Pakistan 0.522 135
New Zealand0.90320Ukraine0.74478Cambodia0.512136
Spain0.89921St. Vincent &0.73879Comoros0.510137
Cyprus 0.886 22 Peru 0.737 80 Kenya 0.508 138
Israel 0.883 23 Paraguay 0.736 81 Congo 0.507 139
Singapore0.88124Lebanon0.73582Lao PDR0.484140
Greece 0.875 25 Jamaica 0.735 83 Madagascar 0.483 141
Hong Kong0.87226Sri Lanka0.73384Bhutan0.483142
Malta 0.865 27 Turkey 0.732 85 Sudan 0.477 143
Portugal 0.864 28 Oman 0.730 86 Nepal 0.474 144
Slovenia0.86129Dominican Republic0.72987Togo0.471145
Barbados0.85830St. Lucia0.72888Bangladesh0.461146
Korea, Rep.0.85431Maldives0.72589Mauritania0.451147
Brunei Darussalam0.84832Azerbaijan0.72290Yemen0.448148
Bahamas 0.844 33 Ecuador 0.722 91 Djibouti 0.447 149
Czech Rep.0.84334Jordan0.72192Haiti0.440150
Argentina 0.837 35 Armenia 0.721 93 Zambia 0.439 151
Kuwait 0.836 36 Albania 0.713 94 Nigeria 0.430 152
Antigua and Barbuda0.83337Samoa (Western)0.71195Congo, Dem. Rep.0.420153
Chile 0.826 38 Guyana 0.709 96 Zambia 0.420 154
Uruguay0.82539Iran0.70997Cote d’Ivoire0.416155
Slovakia0.82540Kyrgyz Rep.0.70698Tanzania0.415156
Bahrain 0.820 41 China 0.706 99 Benin 0.411 157
Qatar 0.819 42 Turkmenistan 0.704 100 Uganda 0.409 158
Hungary 0.817 43 Tunisia 0.703 101 Eritrea 0.408 159
Poland 0.814 44 Moldova 0.700 102 Angola 0.405 160
United Arab Emirates0.81045South Africa0.697103Gambia0.396161
Estonia0.80146El Salvador0.696104Guinea0.394162
St. Kitts and Nevis0.79847Cape Verde0.688105Malawi0.385163
Costa Rica0.79748Uzbekistan0.686106Rwanda0.382164
Croatia 0.795 49 Algeria 0.683 107 Mali 0.380 165
Trinidad and Tobago0.79350Viet Nam0.671108Central African0.371166
Dominica 0.793 51 Indonesia 0.670 109 Chad 0.367 167
Lithuania 0.789 52 Tajikistan 0.663 110 Mozambique 0.341 168
Seychelles0.78653Syrian Arab Rep.0.660111Guinea-Bissau0.331169
Grenada 0.785 54 Swaziland 0.655 112 Burundi 0.321 170
Mexico 0.784 55 Honduras 0.653 113 Ethiopia 0.309 171
Cuba0.78356Bolivia0.643114Burkina Faso0.303172
Belarus 0.781 57 Namibia 0.632 115 Niger 0.293 173
Belize0.77758Nicaragua0.631116Sierra Leone0.252174

Sources for Statistical Tables
Source for Tables 1 and 3:
World Bank. 2000. 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM (Total GNP 1998, Atlas
method). Available at <[]
databytopic/databytopic.html#MACROECONOMICS AND GROWTH>.
Source for Tables 2, 4, and 5:
World Bank. 2000. 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM (GNP per capita 1998,
Atlas method and PPP). Available at
Source for Table 6:
Compiled from:
World Bank. 2000. 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM (Total GNP 1998, Atlas
method). Available at []
databytopic/databytopic.html#MACROECONOMICS AND GROWTH>.
World Bank. 2000. 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM (GNP per capita 1998,
Atlas method and PPP). Available at
Note: Rankings in the above tables include 206 countries. These tables show only those countries
with World Bank confirmed 1998 data or which the World Bank estimates to be in the top
twenty in the category in question. The World Bank uses the Atlas Method (described in the
World Bank's World Development Report 1999/2000, pp. 287-288) to convert GNP figures from
local currencies to US dollars.
Source for Table 7:
United Nations Development Programme. 1999. Human Development Report 1999. New
York: Oxford University Press.

Appendix A. Acronyms and Abbreviations
GDPGross Domestic Product
GNPGross National Product
HDIHuman Development Index
PPP GNPPurchasing Power Parity per capita Gross National Product
UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme