Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Stabilization and Reconstruction
Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Stabilization and
Updated December 26, 2007
Christopher M. Blanchard
Analyst in Middle Eastern Affairs
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Catherine Marie Dale
Specialist in International Security
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Stabilization and
U.S. policymakers have made securing and maintaining foreign contributions
to the stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq a major priority since the preparation
period for the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report
highlights and discusses important changes in financial and personnel contributions
from foreign governments to Iraq since 2003.
To date, foreign donors have pledged an estimated $16.4 billion in grants and
loans for Iraq reconstruction, with most major pledges originating at a major donors'
conference in Madrid, Spain, in October 2003. However, only a small part of the
pledges have been committed or disbursed to the World Bank and United Nations
Development Group Trust Funds for Iraq. The largest non-U.S. pledges of grants
have come from Japan, the European Commission, the United Kingdom, Canada,
South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates. The World Bank, the International
Monetary Fund, Japan, and Saudi Arabia have pledged the most loans and export
Currently, 33 countries including the United States have some level of troops
on the ground in Iraq or supporting Iraq operations from nearby locations. Those
forces are working under the rubric of one of several organizations — the
Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I), the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I); or
the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). Currently, the largest
troop contributors, in addition to the United States, are the United Kingdom, Georgia,
Australia, South Korea, and Poland. Some of these key contributors have announced
their intention to reduce or withdraw their forces from Iraq during 2008. The total
number of non-U.S. coalition troop contributions has declined since the early
stabilization efforts, as other countries have withdrawn their contingents or
substantially reduced their size.
Since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in April 2003, a number of coalition,
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and other countries have contributed
personnel, equipment, and/or facilities to the training of Iraqi security forces.
Supporting the establishment of effective Iraqi security forces is a core element of the
Administration’s current strategy for Iraq, “the New Way Forward,” and several of
the congressionally mandated benchmarks for Iraq refer to these efforts. Planned
U.S.-Iraqi negotiation aimed at achieving a “strategic framework agreement” to
replace the current United Nations mandate for U.S. military operations in Iraq may
have implications for the future participation of coalition members in stabilization
and training efforts.
This report will be updated to reflect important developments. For a broader
review of foreign support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, see CRS Report RL31339,
Iraq: Post Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman, and CRS Report
RL31833, Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance, by Curt Tarnoff.
Multi-National Force Contributions...................................3
Number of Coalition Troops on the Ground.........................5
Multi-National Security Training Command-Iraq (MNSTC-I)...........6
NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I).............................7
Other Training Contributions.....................................8
Foreign Contributions to Reconstruction and Stabilization in Postwar Iraq....10
Significant Coalition Partner Events Since April 9, 2003..............19
List of Tables
Table 1. Foreign Contributions to Reconstruction and Stabilization in Postwar
Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Stabilization
Securing foreign contributions to the military effort in Iraq, and the follow-on
stabilization and reconstruction effort, has been a major priority for U.S.
policymakers since before the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003.
International participation has been sought to support the initial major combat
operations, the follow-on stabilization operations, the training and equipping of Iraqi
security forces, and the provision of financial support to reconstruction efforts.
For many countries, the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution
1511 on October 6, 2003, marked an important milestone in establishing the
legitimacy of the post-war international presence in Iraq. Resolution 1511 authorized
a multinational force under unified (interpreted as U.S.) command to assist Iraqis in
securing their country and in training their security forces. Security Council
Resolution 1546 of June 8, 2004 reaffirmed this authorization and established the
current U.N. mandate under which the U.S.-led multinational force is responsible for
“[contributing] to the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq.” That mandate
has since been extended for twelve month periods by Resolution 1637 (November
11, 2005), Resolution 1723 (November 28, 2006), and Resolution 1790 (December
On November 26, 2007, Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and President Bush
signed a “Declaration of Principles,” expressing the decisions of both governments
to work, by July 2008, to codify a long-term bilateral “strategic framework1
agreement” intended to replace the current U.N. mandate. The roles of U.S. and
coalition forces in combat operations and the training of Iraqi security forces are
likely to be key topics in the strategic framework negotiations. In particular, most
observers agree that training is one of the activities most likely to be continued under
any continuing U.S. or coalition presence in Iraq. The outcome of the U.S.-Iraqi
negotiations is likely to shape the size, structure, and focus of the U.S. military
presence in Iraq. Any changes to the U.S. mission, and any new Iraqi government
positions concerning the roles of coalition forces, could easily affect both the need
for and the perceived legitimacy of, foreign contributions to stabilization operations
and training efforts.
1 Declaration of Principles for a Long Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship
Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America, November 26, 2007,
available at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/20071126-11.html].
This report characterizes foreign contributions to Iraq in terms of personnel and
resources, including trends over time, based on best-available information. The first
section addresses financial contributions, including pledged grants and loans, and
related debt relief. The second section describes troop contributions to the
Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I). The third section addresses contributions to the
Iraqi security forces training effort. These sections are followed by a detailed chart
that includes both financial and personnel contributions, and by a chronology of
significant coalition-related events. The report will be updated as events warrant.
In October 2003, the World Bank and United Nations Development Group
(UNDG), in conjunction with the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), estimated
that the potential cost of Iraqi reconstruction needs would amount to $55 billion over
a four year period from 2003 through 2007. This figure reflected the sum total of a
joint World Bank/UNDG needs assessment of 14 sectors of the Iraqi government and
economy -- $36 billion -- combined with a $19.4 billion Coalition Provisional
Authority (CPA) projection for security, oil, and other sectors not covered by the3
World Bank/UNDG assessment. These amounts, calculated in mid-2003, did not
take into account the significant costs created by the instability and security
disruptions that have occurred since that time.
Shortly after the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 1511 in October
2003, an international donors’ conference for Iraq was held in Madrid, Spain. At that
event, members of the international community, excluding the United States, pledged
approximately $13.5 billion for reconstruction assistance to Iraq, including roughly
$10 billion in loan pledges. As of October 2007, roughly $2.9 billion in additional
pledges had been made, bringing the pledge total to approximately $16.4 billion.
Loan pledges represent $10.8 billion of this total, and Iraq has accepted $2.2 billion
in pledged loan assistance to date. Of the $5.6 billion pledged for grants, Iraq has4
received $4.8 billion.
According to the International Reconstruction Fund Facility for Iraq, $1.766
billion of the pledged assistance has been channeled to the World Bank Iraq Trust
2 For more information see CRS Report RL31833, Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance, by Curt
3 United Nations/World Bank Joint Iraq Needs Assessment, October 2003, available at
[http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ INTIRAQ/ Overvi ew/20147568/J oint%20Needs%2 0
4 GAO-08-365R, “Rebuilding Iraq: International Donor Pledges for Reconstruction Efforts
in Iraq,” December 18, 2007. These figures reflect totals as reported by the Government
Accountability Office (GAO) following an October 2007 review of United Nations, World
Bank, and U.S. Department of State figures. The GAO notes that its data may not fully
reflect exchange rate differences or all bilateral grants and loans, but is “sufficiently reliable
for the purposes of a broad comparison of overall totals for grants and loans in relation to
the pledged amounts.” Other sources, such as the October 2007 Special Inspector General
for Iraq report cite slightly higher pledged assistance totals, between $19 and $21 billion.
Fund and UNDG Iraq Trust Fund. The UNDG Fund had committed close to $800
million for planned projects by the end of October 2007.5 To date, the United States
Congress has appropriated nearly $43 billion for reconstruction programs in Iraq.
Many observers credit persistent security problems and Iraqi government
capacity deficiencies for the slow rate at which pledged international assistance has
been committed and disbursed. Iraq’s Ministry of Planning has established a Donor
Assistance Database “to record donor assistance, analyze donor activities, and
monitor the implementation of donor-funded projects.”6 Iraq also has pursued debt
relief through negotiations with members of the Paris Club as well as in the context
of the International Compact with Iraq (ICI), which was launched at a summit in
Sharm al-Sheikh, Egypt, on May 3, 2007. As of December 2006, Iraq’s government
owed its international creditors $89 billion. During 2007, roughly $28.9 billion in
further loan forgiveness has been pledged.7
Multi-National Force Contributions
Four countries participated directly and openly in the major combat phase of
operations in Iraq: the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland.
Dozens of other coalition partners sent troops to Iraq in the immediate aftermath of
major combat operations, and total troop contribution numbers reached their zenith
in the early stabilization phase. The U.S.-led military command in Iraq has been
known since May 2004 as the Multinational Force-Iraq (MNF-I), and is headed by
U.S. Gen. David Petraeus.8
More recently, coalition troop contribution numbers have experienced an overall
decline. Some countries have withdrawn their contingents altogether, while others—
in a common pattern—have withdrawn the bulk of their contingent, leaving a
relatively small number of staff officers at headquarters within MNF-I.
The United States remains the largest overall contributor of forces to MNF-I,
with 161, 783 pairs of “boots on the ground” as of December 1, 2007.9 That number
5 UNDG Iraq Trust Fund Newsletter, Vol. 4, Issue 7, October 2007, available at
[http://siteresources.worldbank.or g/ IRFFI/ Res our ces / UNDGIT F OCT 2007News l et ter .pdf].
6 Available at [http://www.mop-iraq.org/dad/]. Special Inspector General for Iraq (SIGIR),
October 30, 2007 Quarterly Report to Congress, Section 2c - International Support for Iraq
Reconstruction, p. 141.
7 Government of Iraq and United Nations Joint Update on the International Compact with
Iraq, High-Level Meeting on Iraq, September 22, 2007.
8 From June 2003 to May 2004, the command was known as the Combined Joint Task
9 Information provided by the Department of Defense Joint Staff J-1, December 13, 2007.
That number includes Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines - 143,580 from the active
reflects the beginning of the drawdown of “surge” forces, beginning with the
December 2007 redeployment of the 3rd Brigade Combat Team of the 1st Cavalry
Division from Diyala province. Overall U.S. troop levels in Iraqi have varied over
time, based on operational requirements, and included a peak of about 250,000
during major combat operations, and a post-major combat peak of about 168,000 in
October 2007, reflecting the full “surge” force.10
Currently, the largest non-U.S. troop contributors to MNF-I are the United
Kingdom, Georgia, Australia, South Korea, and Poland. All of these countries’
major deployments are currently in some state of flux:
!The United Kingdom, under the leadership of new Prime Minister
Gordon Brown since June 2007, is in the process of drawing down
from a force of about 5,500 last summer, to 2,500 by spring 2008.11
!Beginning in March 2007, Georgia increased its forces in Iraq from
850 to 2,000. Georgia will hold early presidential elections in
January 2008, in a heated domestic political climate, and the results
are likely to have a major impact on the future of the Georgian
!In November 2007, Australians elected a new Prime Minister, Kevin
Rudd, who had campaigned on plans to withdraw Australia’s
roughly 500-person “combat force” from Iraq by mid-2008. Some
reports suggest that an Australian withdrawal decision, when made,
may not affect approximately 1,000 Australian personnel involved
with training, logistics and headquarters staffing in Iraq, and with
maritime security operations in the northern Persian Gulf.13
!In late October 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo Hyun
announced a government decision to extend the deployment mandate
for another year but to draw down the force from 1,200 to 600;
South Korea holds presidential elections on December 19, 2007 and
the Iraq deployment has been a key issue in the debates.14
component, and 18,203 from the reserve component.
10 See CRS Report RS22449, U.S. Forces in Iraq, by JoAnne O'Bryant and Michael
11 BBC News, “UK troops in Basra cut by 1,000,” October 2, 2007; and Adrian Croft, “UK’s
Brown on unannounced visit to troops in Iraq,” Reuters, December 9, 2007.
12 BBC News, “Iraq pledge by Australia PM-elect,” November 30, 2007.
13 Inside the Pentagon, “U.S. Mulling Impact of Australia’s Planned Drawdown in
Iraq,”Vol. 23, No. 49, December 6, 2007.
14 Joshua Partlow, “List of ‘Willing’ U.S. Allies Shrinks Steadily in Iraq,” Washington Post,
December 8, 2007.
!In November 2007, in his first address to parliament, new Polish
Prime Minister Donald Tusk stated that his goal is to withdraw
Poland’s contingent from Iraq - in consultation with coalition
partners - by the end of 2008.15
Ultimately, foreign government decisions to send forces to Iraq, or to redeploy
them, may rest on a number of factors including the overall security situation; the
domestic political environment in a donor country; legal restrictions these countries
face in deploying troops in Iraq; the potential for foreign companies to invest in Iraq's
economy; and bilateral arrangements between the United States and possible donors.
Number of Coalition Troops on the Ground
Public discussions about the extent of the coalition force presence in Iraq have
been marked by some confusion. There are several reasons for the apparent
The actual number of troops on the ground is constantly in flux, in several ways:
a troop-contributing country may decide to change the size of its contingent and/or
the kinds of units deployed; the size of a contingent may change slightly at regularly
scheduled unit rotations; and contingent size may vary to some degree based on
individual situations such as injury or illness.
Countries may deploy troops to Iraq to one of several different organizations:
the Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I); the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I);
or the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). Further, some
countries, such as Japan and Singapore, deploy troops that directly support MNF-I
but are based outside Iraq (see below).
The U.S. Department of Defense, which maintains regularly updated records of
troop levels in Iraq, maintains those records in classified format. This is so because
some troop-contributing countries do not wish to be publicly identified, and other
troop contributors do not wish the details of their contribution to be known.16 In the
absence of authoritative, consolidated, detailed information from the Department of
Defense, most public information about specific troop levels in Iraq seems to
originate from the respective troop-contributing countries.
The Department of Defense does make available to the Department of State the
total number of coalition troops, and an unclassified list of troop-contributing
countries (without individual country troop levels), for inclusion in the State
Department's publicly available Iraq Weekly Status Reports. According to the
15 Voice of America News, “Polish Parliament Confirms Government of New Prime
Minister,” November 24, 2007; and, Zoltan Dujisin, “Poland: It’s Hard Saying Even
Goodbye to Iraq,” Inter Press Service News Agency, November 14, 2007.
16 U.S. Department of Defense communication to author, October 10, 2007.
December 12, 2007, Status Report, 26 countries, excluding the United States,
currently are contributing a total of about 11,586 troops to MNF-I.17
Coalition Fatalities. As of December 13, 2007, 307 coalition fatalities, other
than the United States, had been reported: United Kingdom 174; Italy 33; Poland 23;
Ukraine 18; Bulgaria 13; Spain 11; Denmark 7; El Salvador 5; Slovakia 4; Latvia 3;
Romania 3; Thailand 2; Australia 2; Netherlands 2; Estonia 2; South Korea 1; Czech
Republic 1; Kazakhstan 1; Hungary 1; Georgia 1.18
Since the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, coalition forces in Iraq have made
contributions to efforts to train and equip Iraqi security forces.
Most pre-war planning assumed that at the end of major combat, Iraqi police
forces would be available to help provide security, and some Iraqi military forces
would be available for recall. Instead, members of local police forces largely “went
to ground” and disappeared. The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), the
executive authority for Iraq at the time, dissolved all Iraqi military services.19 Initial
development of new Iraqi police and military forces took place under CPA
auspices.20 Meanwhile, in September 2003, as a stop-gap measure, coalition forces,
by CPA direction, launched the formation of the Iraqi Civil Defense Corps, a
“security and emergency service agency for Iraq.”21
Multi-National Security Training Command-Iraq (MNSTC-I)
17 See Iraq Weekly Status Report, December 12, 2007, available at
[http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/97576.pdf]. The figures include two
countries, Japan and Singapore, which do not have “boots on the ground” in Iraq. The total
does not include the 6 countries that do not contribute troops separately to MNF-I, but do
contribute troops to NTM-I. The figures do not include Fiji and New Zealand, which
contribute troops for force protection to UNAMI.
18 Unofficial total compiled form open sources by Iraq Coalition Casualty Count, available
at [http://icasualties.org/oif/PieCountry.aspx]. The site’s authors note that they rely on UK
Ministry of Defense reporting regarding UK casualties, and open-source press reporting for
all other countries.
19 CPA Order 2, “Dissolution of Entities,” available at [http://www.iraqcoalition
.org/ regulations/20030823_CPAORD_2_Dissolution_of _ E ntities_with_Annex_A.pdf].
Note that the date of the Order is given incorrectly on the CPA website table of contents, but
is correctly printed on the Order itself.
20 CPA Order 22, “Creation of a New Iraqi Army,” August 18, 2003, available at
21 CPA Order 28, “Establishment of the Iraqi Civil Defense Corps,” September 3, 2003,
available at [http://www.iraqcoalition.org/regulations/20030903_CPAORD_28_Es
On May 11, 2004, National Security Presidential Directive 36 assigned the
mission of organizing, training, mentoring and equipping all of Iraq's security forces
to U.S. Central Command, which created the Multi-National Security Transition
Command-Iraq (MNSTC-I) to bring together all Iraqi security forces training under
a single lead.22 Today, MNSTC-I, under the leadership of U.S. Lieutenant General
(LTG) James Dubik, maintains dedicated teams to train and mentor all of the Iraqi
military services and police services, as well as the Ministries of Interior and
A variety of training initiatives have been undertaken by MNSTC-I that have
involved various coalition partners working in concert with U.S. forces, Iraqi
officials, and trainees. The training initiatives with the largest international
components are those designed to train Iraqi police at locations in Jordan, United
Arab Emirates, and Iraq (see below). Police instructors from Jordan, the United
States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Sweden, Poland, the United Arab
Emirates, Denmark, Austria, Iraq, Finland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary,
Slovenia, Slovakia, Singapore, and Belgium participate in various aspects of the
police training programs. Initiatives by individual coalition members have included,
for example, the Royal Australian Navy's efforts to train Iraq's Coastal Defense
Force, and training programs for Iraqi security personnel directed by the Netherlands
and the Czech Republic.
Since December 2004, the MNSTC-I Commander has been dual-hatted as the
commander of the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I, see below).
NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I)24
Efforts to enlist NATO support for the training of Iraqi security forces coalesced
over the summer and fall of 2004. At the request of the Iraqi Interim Government,
NATO member countries approved the creation of a security force training mission
at the Istanbul summit in June 2004. The first personnel of the NATO Training
Implementation Mission (NTIM, the mission's original name) arrived in Baghdad in
early August 2004 and worked to identify training opportunities for Iraqi security
officials, to train individuals and support staff at the headquarters of Iraq's security
forces, and to develop an action plan for a full NATO-supported training program.
Under the auspices of NTIM, a small number of Iraqi military officers underwent
training at a NATO facility in Stavanger, Norway. Roughly 60 military personnel
from Canada, Hungary, Norway, the Netherlands, and Italy participated in the initial
22 National Security Presidential Directive 36, “United States Government Operations in
Iraq,” May 11, 2004, available at [http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd051104.pdf].
23 MNSTC-I was given the mission to develop Iraq’s Defense and Interior Ministries in
October 2005. See the MNSTC-I website, available at [http://www
24 Fact sheets describing the NATO Training Implementation Mission and Training
Mission-Iraq are available online from the NATO Allied Joint Force Command website at
[ h t t p : / / www.af sout h.nat o.i nt / ] .
Based on the recommendations of the initial NATO mission staff, plans to
expand the training program were considered and approved by NATO leaders in the
fall of 2004. The North Atlantic Council issued the activation order implementing
the expansion and renaming the effort as the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I)
on December 16. Under the approved expansion, the size of the NATO training
mission in Iraq grew from 60 to 300 personnel.
Over time, the Mission has shifted its primary focus from training to advising
and mentoring Iraqi counterparts. A key current initiative is helping the Iraqi armed
forces develop a Non-Commissioned Officer corps.
NTM-I’s Training Equipment and Synchronization Cell (TESC) works with the
Iraqi Ministry of Defense to evaluate equipment requirements, and out-of-country
training requirements, and then coordinates these efforts with donor nations. To date,
over 1,000 Iraqi personnel have received out-of-country training in NATO
NTM-I works closely with the Iraqi Training and Doctrine Command, which
oversees both tactical training and classroom education through Iraq's new National
Defense University and its various colleges and programs. Those include the
National Defense College, similar to senior service schools in the United States; the
Defense Language Institute, which trains both military personnel and
English-language instructors who work with the military; the Joint Staff College at
Ar Rustamiyah, which, like the U.S. Joint Forces Staff College, runs programs for
junior and senior officers, and which was re-established with strong NTM-I support
in 2005; and the Iraqi Military Academies.26
At a NATO meeting on February 22, 2005, all 26 NATO member agreed to
contribute troops, financing, or equipment to support NTM-I. As of October 2007,
the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom.27
Some NATO members (France, Belgium, Greece, Spain, Luxembourg, Germany),
reluctant to send troops to Iraq, are providing material support or training support
outside Iraq. Some of this support is being provided outside of the NTM-I
framework (see “Other Training Contributions,” and Table 1, below.)
Other Training Contributions
Other countries including Germany, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt,
and Jordan (see below) have committed funding, personnel, and facilities for the
training of Iraqi security forces on a bilateral or multilateral basis.
25 See [http://www.afsouth.nato.int/JFCN_Missions/NTM-I/NTMI_tesc.htm].
26 See [http://www.afsouth.nato.int/JFCN_Missions/NTM-I/NTMI_doct.htm].
27 See the NTM-I website at [http://www.afsouth.nato.int/JFCN_Missions/NTM-I/NTMI
_part.htm]. Ukraine is not a NATO member.
!Jordan28 - Jordan has hosted the largest effort to train Iraqi police
officers at its International Police Training Center in Muwaqqar, east
of Amman. As of February 2007, the U.S.-funded and
Jordanian-hosted program had trained over 50,000 police in firearms
use, self-defense, and crowd control. The Jordanian military also
has trained over 1,500 Iraqi army officers at its Zarqa Military
College, along with a small group of Iraqi air force pilots and
!Germany/Japan/United Arab Emirates - Although Germany has
declined to send training personnel to Iraq as part of NTM-I, the
German government, in cooperation with Japan and the United Arab
Emirates, has trained Iraqi police officers in crime scene exploitation
and police methodology since late 2003. Officials from Japan, the
Emirates’ police forces, and Germany's Bundeskriminalamt, (federal
criminal investigation office), have jointly administered the training
program, which is based in the UAE. In December 2004, German
officials announced that they would expand another UAE-based
program that has trained Iraqi military drivers and mechanics to use
and service surplus German military trucks.
!Egypt- In late 2004 an Iraqi infantry company was invited to Egypt
to participate in a joint training program with the Egyptian army.
According to the Egyptian government, 134 soldiers from Iraq's 5th
Infantry Division trained alongside Egypt's 3rd Infantry Division at
the Mubarak Military City in northern Egypt. No plans for future
joint Iraqi-Egyptian training exercises have been publicly
announced, although Egypt have expressed willingness to expand
their training program for Iraqi military officers.
28 Author visit to Jordan International Police Training Center, Muwaqqar, Jordan, July 2007.
Foreign Contributions to Reconstruction and
Stabilization in Postwar Iraq
Peak Deployment and Current Deployment figures include information from
Embassies and some press sources, as cited.
Financial Pledge figures reflect donor pledges made for Iraq reconstruction activities as
reported by the Government Accountability Office and derived from World Bank, United29
Nations, and U.S. Department of State data. The GAO reports that its data may not fully
reflect exchange rate differences or all bilateral grants and loans, but was prepared “in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards,” and is, “sufficiently
reliable for the purposes of a broad comparison of overall totals for grants and loans in relation
to the pledged amounts.” In some instances, pledge figures below reflect a combination of both
grants and loans. The figures do not include debt relief. For more detailed information on
pledges, obligations, and disbursements of funds, see the U.S. Department of State Section30
2207 Reports to Congress, the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction’s reports to3132
Congress, and the reports of the International Reconstruction Fund Facility for Iraq.
Table 1. Foreign Contributions to Reconstruction and
Stabilization in Postwar Iraq
F ina ncia l
Albania120, up from120 in MNF-I34-
initialOn June 14, 2007, Minister of Defense
deployment of33Fatmir Mediu stated that Albania “will
71 in 2003continue our commitments to peace-
support operations in Afghanistan, Iraq,35
and in Bosnia Herzegovina”.
29 GAO-08-365R, “Rebuilding Iraq: International Donor Pledges for Reconstruction Efforts
in Iraq,” December 18, 2007.
30 See Appendices II, available at [http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rpt/2207/].
31 Available at [http://www.sigir.mil/reports/Default.aspx].
32 Available at [http://www.irffi.org/].
33 See official website of the Multi-National Force-Iraq: [http://www.mnf-iraq.com].
35 Fatmir Mediu, Albanian Minister of Defense, Address at EAPC Defence Ministerial
Meeting, June 14, 2007.
F ina ncia l
Armenia46, originally46 in MNF-I37-
deployed inCurrent one-year mandate, extended in
February36December 2006, expires in December38
AustraliaAbout 2,000 in39“Up to 1575” in MNF-I, as of 244077.270
1 Military observer in UNAMI
New Prime Minister Kevin Rudd who
had campaigned on plans to withdraw
Australia's roughly 500 person “combat
force” from Iraq by mid-2008. Some
reports suggest that an Australian
withdrawal decision, when made, may
not affect approximately 1,000
Australian personnel involved with
training, logistics and headquarters
staffing in Iraq, and with maritime
security operations in the north Persian42
Austria - - 5 .480
Azerbaijan15143151 in MNF-I44-
B e lgium - - 5 .8 9 0
Bosnia364536 in MNF-I46-
36 Information from Embassy of Armenia, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
38 Arka News Agency, “Sixth rotation of Armenian peacekeepers in Iraq,” July 16, 2007.
39 William J. Kole, “US-Led Iraq Coalition Withering Fast,” Chicago Tribune, October 9,
40 Australian Department of Defence website: [http://www.defence.gov.au].
41 “UN Missions Summary by Country,” September 2007., available at [http://www
.un.org/ Depts/dpko.dpko/cont ributors/2007/sept07_3.pdf]
42 Inside the Pentagon, “U.S. Mulling Impact of Australia’s Planned Drawdown in
Iraq,”Vol. 23, No. 49, December 6, 2007; and, BBC News, “Iraq pledge by Australia
PM-elect,” November 30, 2007.
43 Information from Embassy of Azerbaijan, October 11, 2007.
45 Information from Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Washington DC, October 12,
2007. Contingent is designed to include equal representation from the three major ethnic
F ina ncia l
Bulgaria48547153 in MNF-I, though the full0.640
contingent is “supposed to include 155”.48
1 in NTM-I
Canada1 in MNF-I, in49None187.470
China - - 31.500
Croatia - - 0.333
Cyprus - - 0.120
Czech400, from Mar5099 with MNF-I,14.660
Republicto May 20033 with NTM-I in Iraq,51
2 with NTM-I based in Kuwait
Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel
Schwarzenberg recently stated that work
is underway on a plan for the gradual52
withdrawal of remaining Czech forces.
DenmarkOver 6005360 in MNF-I,5461.950
12 in NTM-I
Denmark recently withdrew a 460-
strong ground force contingent and
deployed a helicopter unit of about 55 to55
Republicin May 2004 at
time of Spanish
47 Information from Embassy of Bulgaria, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
49 Communication from Canadian officer, Baghdad, Iraq, 2004.
50 Information from the Embassy of the Czech Republic, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
51 Ibid., and Czech Army website: [http://www.army.cz].
52 Associated Press, “Czechs plan to gradually withdraw troops from Iraq, Foreign Minister
says,” October 7, 2007.
53 Information from the Embassy of Denmark, Washington DC, October 12, 2007.
55 Ibid., and Associated Press, “Denmark hands over responsibilities to British military in
Iraq,” August 1, 2007.
F ina ncia l
El Salvador380, from 200356300 in MNF-I-
to 2007President Tony Saca recently stated that
El Salvador would further reduce its57
forces as the situation in Iraq improves.
Estonia4058Between 34 to 38 in MNF-I (40 are0.800
1 in NTM-I
European NA NA 921.305
Fiji223 in UNAMI223 in UNAMI60-
Finland - - 8 .834
Fr ance - - 10.700
Georgia 2 ,000 61 2,000 62 -
Some officials have stated that Georgia
will draw down its forces by mid-2008.
The Georgian presidential election
scheduled for January 2008 is likely to
affect future deployment decisions.
Germany - - 4 .150
Greece - - 7.148
in May 2004
Hungary300 until early6320 in NTM-I641.670
56 Reuters, “El Salvador cuts small troop presence in Iraq,” August 7, 2007.
57 Ibid., and William J. Kole, “US-led Iraq Coalition Withering Fast,” Chicago Tribune,
October 9, 2007.
58 Information from Embassy of Estonia, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
60 “UN Missions Summary by Country,” September 2007, available at [http://www.un
.org/ Depts/dpko.dpko/cont ributors/2007/sept07_3.pdf].
61 Andrew Kramer, “US-Led Coalition Becoming Ever More All-American,” New York
Times, September 14, 2007.
62 Andrew Kramer, “US-Led Coalition Becoming Ever More All-American,” New York
Times, September 14, 2007.
63 Information from Embassy of Hungary, Washington DC, October 12, 2007.
F ina ncia l
IcelandHad 1 publicNone3
withd r ew
I nter natio na l NA NA 2,550
India - - 1 0
Iran - - 1 ,005
Ireland - - 3.530
ItalyAbout 3,200 in6678, including carabinieri, in NTM-I67835.620
Japan600 Japan200 Japan Air Self Defense Forces,4,914
Ground Selfbased in Kuwait, provide airlift between69
Defense Forces,Kuwait and Iraq
Kazakhstan297029 in MNF-I71-
65 Iceland Review, “Iceland withdraws from NATO project in Iraq,” September 6, 2007.
Iceland does not maintain a standing army.
66 Information from Embassy of Italy, Washington DC, October 15, 2007.
68 Information from Embassy of Japan, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
70 Information from Embassy of Kazakhstan, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
F ina ncia l
Korea,3,600 in 2004Under 1,000 in Dec 2007.72 Many400
Republic ofobservers expect that President-elect Lee
Myung-bak will support the continued73
presence of Korean forces in Iraq. The
outgoing President, Roh Moo Hyun, had
announced a planned draw down by74
mid-2008 to 600. The mandate of the
troops has been extended through
December 2008, pending re-certification
by the National Assembly.
Kuwait - - 500
Latvia125, most3 in MNF-I76-
Lithuania121 from April5 at MNF-I. 780.030
2003 to January774 at NTM-I
Macedonia39 or 407939 in MNF-I80-
Moldova43 from20 in MNF-I82-
2003 to March81
72 Joshua Partlow, “List of ‘Willing’ U.S. Allies Shrinks Steadily in Iraq,” Washington Post,
December 8, 2007.
73 Yonhap English News, “Fact sheet: S. Korean president-elect’s policies on N. Korea,
foreign affairs, domestic issues,” December 19, 2007
74 Kurt Achin, “S. Korea Extends, But Cuts in Half, Military Deployment to Iraq,” Global
Security, October 23, 2007,
75 Information from Embassy of Latvia, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
76 Ibid., and Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Latvia website:
[ h t t p : / / www.mod.gov.l v] .
77 Information from Embassy of Lithuania, Washington DC, October 16, 2007.
79 Information from Embassy of Macedonia, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
81 Information from Embassy of Moldova, Washington DC, October 12, 2007.
82 Ibid. and International Herald Tribune, “Moldova increases number of troops in Iraq,”
December 12, 2007.
F ina ncia l
Mongolia18083100 in MNF-I84-
Netherlands1200857 in NTM-I8612.885
New ZealandAbout 60 in1 in UNAMI876.110
Oman - - 3
Pakistan - - 2.500
Philippines51, withdrew inNone-
Poland2,500 from897 in MNF-I,90-
September11 in NTM-I
2003 toIn November 2007, new PM Tusk stated
Decemberhis goal for a full troop withdrawal by91
2004. Reducedthe end of 2008.
to 1700 in89
Portugal128 until9 in NTM-I930.600
Feb r uar y92
Qatar - - 100
83 Information from Embassy of Mongolia, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
85 Information from Embassy of the Netherlands, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
87 “UN Missions Summary by Country,” September 2007, available at [http://www.un
.org/ Depts/dpko.dpko/cont ributors/2007/sept07_3.pdf].
88 Information from Embassy of Norway, Washington DC, October 16, 2007; and, Judy
Dempsey, “Hungary joins others in pulling troops from Iraq,” International Herald Tribune,
November 4, 2004.
89 Information from Embassy of Poland, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
91 Voice of America News, “Polish Parliament Confirms Government of New Prime
Minister,” November 24, 2007; and Zoltan Dujisin, “Poland: It’s Hard Saying Even
Goodbye to Iraq,” Inter Press Service News Agency, November 14, 2007.
92 Information from Embassy of Portugal, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
F ina ncia l
Romania865 in 2005, up495 in MNF-I-
from 738 in942 in NTM-I
Russia n -- 8
Fed e r a tio n
SingaporeAbout 18095About 180961.700
Singapore has not provided “boots on
the ground” inside Iraq. Instead, it has
provided air and naval support,
including 3 Landing Ship, Tank (LSTs)
deployments; 4 KC-135 tanker aircraft
deployments; and 1 C-130 deployment.
The most recent is an LST deployment
that began on September 1, 2007.
SlovakiaAbout 110 until2 at MNF-I-
2007, includingThe Ministry of Defense announced that
105 in MNF-ISlovakia would withdraw its last 298
and 10 in97soldiers by the end of 2007.
Slovenia42 at NTM-I990.420
Sp ain100 1,300, None 248
Sweden - - 33
Switzer land - - 1 1
94 Information from Embassy of Romania, Washington DC, October 12, 2007; and Reuters,
“Romania set to reduce Iraq troops by 100,” March 14, 2007.
95 Information from Embassy of Singapore, Washington DC, October 11, 2007.
97 Information from Embassy of Slovakia, Washington DC, October 15, 2007.
98 Ibid., and Associated Press, “Slovakia to withdraw its last two soldiers in Iraq,” October
99 U.S. Department of State, “Slovenia to join NATO training mission to Iraq,” January 24,
100 “Spain Leads Troop Withdrawal from Iraq,” USA Today, April 19, 2004.
F ina ncia l
Thailand447, then 443,None-
from 2003 to101
Tonga55, August55 at MNF-I-
2007 to102At least one further rotation planned,103
presentafter current six-month rotation.
Turkey31043 at NTM-I10560
Ukraine1657 until31 at MNF-I107-
December1063 at NTM-I
United46,000 inAbout 4,500 in MNF-I as of December108650.330
KingdomMarch/ April1, 2007
2003About 11 in NTM-I109
1 in UNAMI
Under the leadership of new PM Gordon
Brown the UK is drawing down from
about 5,500 troops in summer 2007 to110
2,500 troops by spring 2008.
United StatesAbout 250,000161,783 as of December 1, 200711110
Vietnam - - 0 .700
101 “Thaksin backs Japan’s noncombatant mission to Iraq,” Asian Political News, December
102 Donna Miles, “Pacific Command Chief Praises Little Tonga for Big Iraq Contribution,”
American Forces Press Service, September 17, 2007; and, Information from Representation
of Tonga, New York, NY, October 11, 2007.
104 Information from Embassy of Turkey, Washington DC, October 10, 2007.
106 Information from Embassy of Ukraine, Washington DC, October 12, 2007.
107 Ibid., and Ministry of Defence of Ukraine website: [http://www.mil.gov.ua].
108 BBC News, “UK troops in Basra cut by 1,000,” October 2, 2007; and Adrian Croft,
“UK’s Brown on unannounced visit to troops in Iraq,” Reuters, December 9, 2007.
109 “UN Missions Summary by Country”, September 2007,
[http://www.un.org/ Depts/dpko/dpko/contributor s/2007/sept07_3.pdf]
110 BBC News, “UK troops in Basra cut by 1,000,” October 2, 2007; and Jane Perlez,
“Brown to cut British troops in Iraq by half,” International Herald Tribune, October 8,
111 Information from U.S. Department of Defense Joint Staff, December 1, 2007.
F ina ncia l
World BankNANA3,000 (loans)
Significant Coalition Partner Events Since April 9, 2003
December 2007Acting on the Iraqi government’s request, the UN Security Council
extended the United Nations mandate for the coalition presence in Iraq
through the end of 2008 (Resolution 1790). The United States and
Iraq announced planned negotiations aimed at achieving a “strategic
framework agreement” to replace the current United Nations mandate
for U.S. military operations in Iraq.
December 2007South Korea elected a new President, Lee Myung-bak, who is expected
to support the continued presence of Korean forces in Iraq. The
mandate of the troops has been extended through December 2008,
pending re-certification by the Korean National Assembly.
November 2007Australia elected a new Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, who had
campaigned on plans to withdraw Australia’s roughly 500-person
“combat force” from Iraq by mid-2008. Ministerial consultations on
the plans are ongoing.
October 2007South Korean President Roh Moo Hyun announced an extension of the
mandate for South Korean troops for one year, but a draw down by
mid-2008 to 600.
October 2007Under the leadership of new Prime Minister Gordon Brown the UK is
drawing down from about 5,500 troops in summer 2007 to 2,500
troops by spring 2008.
November 2007Poland’s new Prime Minister Tusk stated his goal for a full troop
withdrawal by the end of 2008..
October 2007Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg stated that
work is underway on a plan for the gradual withdrawal of remaining
October 2007El Salvador’s President Tony Saca stated that his government would
further reduce its forces as the situation in Iraq improves.
October 2007The Slovakian Ministry of Defense announced that Slovakia would
withdraw its last 2 soldiers by the end of 2007.
September 2007Georgian Minister of Defense Davit Kezerashvili stated that Georgia
would reduce its force in Iraq to 300 troops by July 2008.
September 2007South Korean leaders stated they had not made a final decision
regarding the potential withdrawal of 1,200 South Korean troops from
Iraq and indicated they may consider seeking an extension for the
deployment if requested by the United States.
September 2007British forces withdrew from positions in the southern Iraqi city of
Basra and transferred security control for the city to Iraqi security
August 2007Lithuania withdrew most of its 50 troops from Iraq, leaving some
personnel in staff positions at MNF-I and NTM-I.
August 2007Denmark withdrew most of its 470 strong contingent in southern Iraq,
leaving a helicopter unit and four helicopters to work with British
forces until the end of 2007, in addition to some personnel in staff
positions at MNF-I and NTM-I.
June 2007Lithuania withdrew the bulk of its 125 forces from Iraq.
June 10, 2007U.S. Lieutenant General (LTG) James M. Dubik replaced LTG Martin
Dempsey as the commanding officer of the MNSTC-I and NTM-I.
April 2007South Korea reduced the number of its troops in Iraq from 2,300 to
March 2007Georgia announced plans to increase its forces in Iraq from 850 to
Mar. 15, 2007Romania announced it would withdraw 100 of its troops in line with
British withdrawal plans during 2007.
Jan.-Mar. 2007British Army Lt. Gen. Graeme Lamb, deputy commander of
Multi-National Force-Iraq, announced that British troops would remain
in Iraq at least until the end of 2007. Press reports indicated that the
United Kingdom planned to reduce the size of its contingent, then at
7,100. However, accounts differed on the timing and size of the
Jan. 9, 2007Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen reportedly told
President Bush that he hoped Denmark would be able to reduce the
number of Danish troops in Iraq during 2007 from the then-current
number of 470.
Dec. 22, 2006Polish President Lech Kaczynski extended the authorization of the
Polish military presence in Iraq until the end of 2007.
Dec. 22, 2006The South Korean National Assembly approved a bill extending the
presence of South Korean troops in Iraq until the end of 2007. The bill
required a reduction in the number of troops serving in the northern
Iraqi city of Irbil from 2,300 to 1,200 by April. The bill also required
the South Korean government to develop a plan for a full withdrawal.
December 2006The final contingent of Italian troops was withdrawn from Iraq,
fulfilling the campaign pledges of Italian Prime Minister Romano
Prodi and his political allies.
October 2006Albanian Defense Minister Fatmir Mediu announced that Albania’s
contingent of approximately 120 troops in Iraq would remain until
U.S. forces are withdrawn.
June 30, 2006Romanian Prime Minister Calin Popescu Tariceanu reiterated his
support for withdrawing Romania’s troops from Iraq. Romanian
President Traian Basescu criticized the proposal. The Romanian
Supreme Council of National Defense postponed consideration of the
Prime Minister’s withdrawal resolution.
June 20, 2006Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi announced plans to
withdraw Japan’s 600 personnel from Iraq following the handover of
security control to Iraqi forces in the southern province of Al
Muthannah. 200 Japanese air force personnel remain deployed in
Kuwait, supporting the coalition operations in Iraq.
— Australian Prime Minister John Howard announced that at the
completion of the current rotation, the mission of 460 Australian
soldiers in Iraq would shift to providing security for the Japanese
personnel in Samawah.
June 16, 2006Italy announced plans to reduce its forces in Iraq to 1,600 by the end
of June 2006 and to completely withdraw all forces by the end of 2006
in line with campaign pledges of newly elected Prime Minister
Dec. 31, 2005South Korea’s parliament approved a government plan to bring home
one-third of the country’s troops in Iraq but extended the overall
deployment for a year.
Dec. 29, 2005Polish President Lech Kaczynski approved a request from the
conservative government to keep troops in Iraq until the end of 2006.
Extending the mandate reversed the stand of the previous left-wing
government that had announced Polish troops would be pulled out by
the end of 2005.
Oct. 14, 2005Norway announced that it planned to withdraw its troops from Iraq and
from Afghanistan by January 2006.
Sept. 8, 2005U.S. LTG Martin E. Dempsey replaced U.S. LTG David H. Petraeus
as the commanding officer of the coalition Multi-National Security
Transition Command-Iraq (MNSTC-I) and the NATO Training
Aug. 11, 2005The UN Security Council renewed for one year the mandate of the
United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI).
July 19, 2005The Fourth meeting of the International Reconstruction Fund Facility
for Iraq (IRFFI) was held at the Dead Sea in Jordan. Donors committed
an additional $235 million in new contributions to the IRFFI.
May 10, 2005Italy’s Foreign Minister Gianfranco Fini said his country would
withdraw its 3,300-strong contingent from Iraq by January or February
2006, at the latest. The withdrawal would be in conjunction with
Iraq’s anticipated general elections, scheduled to take place by
December 31, 2005. Fini also stated that Italy “will not choose a
— Japan’s Defense Minister Yoshinori Ono stated, “we hope to turn
over what the Self Defense Forces are doing, to the Iraqi people as
soon as possible,” adding to comments by other officials that Japan
could scale back or withdraw its current 550-strong non-combat
humanitarian reconstruction mission in Samawah, Iraq by the end of
May 5, 2005Bulgaria’s outgoing parliament voted to pull all of its 462 troops out
of Iraq by the end of 2005, with the first reduction down to 400 byth
June. The vote came just days after Bulgaria suffered its 10 military
fatality in Iraq.
Apr. 27, 2005Danish Foreign Minister Per Stig Moeller announced that the country
would extend its troop mandate in Iraq for another eight months,
beginning in June 2005 at the start of the next troop rotation.
Mar. 17, 2005After initially announcing his intent to begin withdrawing Italian
troops from Iraq in September 2005, Italian Prime Minister Silvio
Berlusconi stated that there was no fixed date for an Italian
withdrawal. Berlusconi’s revised statement came just hours after a
phone conversation with President Bush.
Feb. 22, 2005NATO members issued a joint statement pledging troops, funding, and
equipment in support of the NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-I).
Feb. 12, 2005Portugal withdrew its 120-strong police force from Iraq as scheduled.
Jan. 10, 2005Ukraine announced that it was accelerating the withdrawal of its entire
contingent of troops from Iraq in early 2005.
Dec. 24, 2004The parliament of Armenia approved the deployment of 46 non-
combat troops to Iraq. The deployment was scheduled for some time
in early 2005.
Nov. 15, 2004The parliament of Hungary voted against extending the mandate of its
troops in Iraq. Hungary withdrew its 300-man contingent from Iraq in
Nov. 3-6, 2004In a meeting in Brussels with Iraqi Prime Minister Ayad Allawi, the
European Union pledged $38 million in new assistance for the
upcoming Iraqi elections and vowed to open up trade talks with the
Iraqi government. The EU also announced plans to train Iraqi police,
judges, and prison directors.
Nov. 3, 2004Hungary announced that it would withdraw its 300-man force from
Iraq after the January 2005 Iraqi elections.
Oct. 15, 2004Poland’s Prime Minister announced that Poland would begin
withdrawing its troops in January 2005 and would complete the entire
withdrawal of its forces from Iraq by the end of 2005.
Oct.13-14, 2004At a donors’ meeting in Tokyo, Japan, the World Bank announced that
it had only two projects underway in Iraq using funds from the
international trust established over a year earlier. Officials blamed the
ongoing Iraqi insurgency for slowing down the reconstruction process.
Iraqi officials urged the international community to accelerate the
transfer of aid. Iran donated $10 million to the World Bank trust fund.
Oct. 4, 2004Poland’s Defense Minister announced that Poland would withdraw all
of its troops from Iraq by the end of 2005. Other Polish officials later
remarked that a withdrawal was only being considered.
Oct. 2, 2004Italy’s Deputy Premier remarked that Italy could pull its troops out of
Iraq after the January 2005 Iraqi elections.
Sept. 24, 2004The Washington Post reported that the former Soviet republic of
Georgia was planning to send 800 additional troops to Iraq by the end
of the year.
Sept. 9, 2004The New York Times reported that Costa Rica asked the United States
to remove it from a list of Iraq coalition partners after the country’s
Constitutional Court ruled that inclusion on the list violated Costa
Rica’s Constitution. Costa Rica had provided no troops or assistance
to the coalition effort in Iraq.
July 12, 2004Philippine Deputy Foreign Minister Rafael Seguis told Al-Jazeera that
Manila was offering to withdraw its forces as soon as possible from
Iraq to save a Filipino truck driver taken hostage by Iraqi militants.
July 4, 2004The Kingdom of Tonga announced that its 45-member Marine
contingent had arrived in Iraq.
June 29, 2004At its summit in Istanbul, Turkey, NATO agreed to train Iraqi security
June 28, 2004The Coalition Provisional Authority disbanded, and sovereignty was
transferred to a new Iraqi government.
June 11, 2004The Dutch government extended the stay of its 1,400-member
contingent in Iraq through March 2005.
Apr. 19, 2004The Albanian government said it was prepared to send more non-
combat troops to Iraq in an expansion of its 71-member-strong
contingent base din the northern city of Mosul under the command of
U.S.-led Multi-National Brigade-North.
— Honduras announced that it would withdraw its 370 troops, which
had been operating in Iraq under the command of the Spanish-led
brigade, under Multi-National Division Center South. Honduras had
planned to withdraw its troops in July but accelerated the timetable for
their withdrawal after Spain confirmed its immediate withdrawal of
troops from Iraq.
Apr. 18, 2004Spain’s new Socialist prime minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero,
announced that he was ordering Spanish troops to leave Iraq “as soon
as possible.” Mr. Zapatero said he had made his decision because it
was unlikely that the United Nations would be playing a leading role
in Iraq any time soon, which had been his condition for keeping
Spain’s 1,300 troops in Iraq.
Mar. 18, 2004According to South Korean defense officials, South Korea canceled
plans to send troops to the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk, citing U.S.
pressure to participate in “offensive operations,” but still planned to
send 3,600 troops and personnel to help rebuild the country.
Mar. 15, 2004In a news conference, Prime Minister-elect José Luis Rodriguez
Zapatero promised to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq. Spanish
forces had been set to assume control from Poland of the 9,000-strong
Multi-National Division Center-South, on July 1.
Mar. 14, 2004Spain’s opposition Socialist Party defeated the center-right party of
Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar, as many Spanish voters were
reportedly dissatisfied with the government’s handling of the ongoing
Madrid bombing investigation.
Mar. 11, 2004Ten bombs exploded on commuter trains in Madrid, killing 200
people. Spanish authorities blamed the Basque terrorist group ETA,
but other Spanish investigators found evidence linking the bombings
to Islamist terrorists.
Feb. 13, 2004South Korea’s National Assembly approved the deployment of 3,000
troops to Iraq. The additional troops were to be responsible for security
and reconstruction around the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk.
Feb. 9, 2004Nicaragua canceled its second deployment to Iraq after running short
of funds to carry out the operation.
Feb. 4, 2004Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar told a joint meeting of
Congress that Spain would remain committed to providing security in
Iraq and to assisting with reconstruction efforts.
Jan. 31, 2004Japan’s lower house of parliament gave final approval to the
deployment of 1,000 Japanese troops to Iraq. Japanese soldiers arrived
in Iraq a few days later.
Jan. 30, 2004Iraqi attackers fired two rocket-propelled grenades at the Dutch
Embassy in Baghdad, hitting the roof and setting it on fire. There were
no reports of injuries.
Dec. 17, 2003Acting as a special presidential envoy, Secretary of State James A.
Baker III obtained assurances from France, Germany, and Italy to
reschedule Iraq’s debt through Paris Club mechanisms.
Dec. 16, 2003South Korea’s Cabinet formally approved the deployment of 3,000
combat and noncombat troops to Iraq. The measure still needed to be
formally ratified by South Korea’s Parliament.
Dec. 12, 2003 The Spanish government announced that it would extend its mission
in Iraq for an additional six months. Approximately 1,300 Spanish
troops were serving in Iraq.
— The Dutch parliament approved a measure to extend its troop
presence of about 1,100 Marines for an additional six months.
Dec. 10, 2003A directive issued by Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz
announced a list of 63 countries eligible to bid for the 26 primary
reconstruction contracts appropriated under P.L. 108-106. P.L. 108-
Countries eligible to bid were identified as either Coalition partners or
troop-contributing nations. Canada threatened to withhold its aid
pledges because it was barred from contracting. Russia indicated that
it would be unwilling to reschedule Iraq’s debt because of the
— U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan announced that the United
Nations would operate its mission for Iraq, UNAMI, in either Jordan
or Cyprus for the time being because it was too dangerous to return to
Dec. 9, 2003The Japanese Cabinet approved a deployment of up to 1,000 troops.
Within the plan, 600 Ground Self-Defense Force troops would provide
medical services and supply water in southeastern Iraq. Although no
specific start date was set, the deployment was scheduled to occur
anytime after December 15, 2003, and last from six months to one
Dec. 8, 200360 South Korean contract engineers and technicians left Iraq over
security concerns. The incident represented the largest withdrawal by
contractors because of security concerns and occurred a week after two
of their colleagues were killed in an ambush. The contractors were
fixing Iraq’s electrical power grid as subcontractors for a U.S.-based
Dec. 7, 2003Although foreign donors pledged $3 billion in grants for short-term
needs at the Madrid International Donors Conference on Iraq, the
World Bank reported that only $685 million had been verified. Part of
this shortfall resulted from a change in Japan’s initial posture of
providing immediate grant aid to providing medium-term grant
assistance. Although some analysts suggested that pledges might not
materialize, the Bush Administration stated that more grants would
come forward once the joint U.N./World Bank administered trust fund
Dec. 6, 2003Former Secretary of State James A. Baker III was appointed as a
special presidential envoy to persuade other countries to reschedule or
forgive Iraq’s sovereign debt.
Nov. 30, 2003Two South Korean engineers were killed on a road near Tikrit, north
of Baghdad. Although South Korea’s Foreign Minister Yoon Young-
Kwan announced that the killings would not affect the government’s
proposal to send more troops to Iraq, any decision regarding the
deployment of more troops would require approval by South Korea’s
parliament. For reasons unrelated to Iraq, the opposition party
boycotted all proceedings from Nov. 26 - Dec. 3, 2003, delaying
Nov. 29, 2003Two Japanese diplomats were killed on their way to an aid conference
in northern Iraq. Although Prime Minister Koizumi pledged that
Japan would continue to support efforts in Iraq, the opposition party
signaled that it would step up pressure to delay deployment of
Japanese noncombat troops.
Seven Spanish intelligence officers were killed in an ambush 100 km
south of Baghdad. Spanish Prime Minister Anzar later affirmed
Spain’s commitment to remain in Iraq despite widespread popular
Nov. 28, 2003An official Japanese Self-Defense Force exploratory mission to Iraq
concluded that the security situation in Samara, Iraq, was stable
enough to send Japanese SDF troops there.
Nov. 21, 2003The U.N. officially transferred administration of the multi-billion
dollar Oil-For-Food Program (OFFP) over to the Coalition Provisional
Authority. The remaining balance of funds held in the OFFP were to
be transferred to the CPA-administered Development Fund for Iraq.
Henceforth, U.N. humanitarian and reconstruction activities were to be
financed by the March and June 2003 U.N. humanitarian appeals and
bilateral donations to the World Bank/U.N. reconstruction trust fund.
Nov. 20, 2003Taiwan pledged an additional $8.5 million in aid for reconstruction in
Nov. 19, 2003Guatemala’s Defense Minister announced that Guatemala would be
willing to supply troops to a U.N. peacekeeping force in Iraq.
Nov. 19, 2003The Bush Administration indicated that it would seek an additional
U.N. Security Council Resolution in mid-December to approve the
time line and design for transferring sovereignty to an internationally
recognized Iraqi government.
Nov. 17, 2003An Italian official serving as a special counselor to the Coalition
Provisional Authority resigned, accusing the CPA of inefficiency and
failing to understand Iraqis.
Nov. 13, 2003Japan and South Korea expressed hesitancy to send new troops in light
of the recent suicide-bomb attack on the Italian headquarters in
Nasiriya. Japan indicated that it would be unlikely to send troops until
the following year, and South Korea rebuffed requests to send more
than 3,000 troops to Iraq.
Nov. 12, 2003A suicide-bomb attack on the Italian headquarters in Nasiriya killed 18
Italians, including 12 military police offices, 4 soldiers, and two
civilians. Although the main Italian opposition party initially called for
a withdrawal of troops, Italy sent 50 reinforcements two days later and
pledged to remain in Iraq.
Nov. 8, 2003The International Committee of the Red Cross announced that it would
temporarily close offices in Baghdad and Basra under growing security
concerns. Operations would still continue in northern Iraq.
Nov. 7, 2003Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) announced that it would be willing to
send troops to Iraq to support the Polish-led multi-division. At that
point, BiH relied upon 12,000 NATO security forces to maintain its
own internal security.
Nov. 7, 2003The Turkish government officially rescinded its offer to provide troops
to the multi-national coalition force in Iraq. On November 5, 2003, the
Iraqi Governing Council announced that it would reject Turkey’s offer
to supply troops for stabilization and security details.
Nov. 4, 2003Spain moved most of its Embassy’s staff to Amman, Jordan under
growing security concerns. Officials indicated that the Embassy would
remain open with minimal staff. Spain was the third coalition partner
to drastically reduce or close down Embassy operations in 30 days due
to security concerns.
Nov. 3, 2003The Senate passed the FY2004 emergency supplemental
appropriations request for Iraq and Afghanistan by a voice vote.
Nov. 2, 200315 American soldiers died in a helicopter crash west of Baghdad that
was believed to be caused by a missile attack. The soldiers were on
their way home for a two week leave. The attack was the deadliest
single strike against U.S. soldiers since the war began on March 20,
Oct. 31, 2003The House passed the FY2004 emergency supplemental request for
Iraq and Afghanistan by a margin of 298-121. Within the $87.5 billion
appropriations bill, approximately $18.7 billion in grants was
designated for reconstruction in Iraq.
Oct. 28, 2003Ukrainian soldiers came under attack while on patrol 40 miles
southeast of Baghdad. These attacks represent the first ambush on
soldiers from countries that had recently sent personnel to participate
in the coalition.
Oct. 27, 2003A suicide bombing at the International Red Cross Headquarters killed
at least 12 individuals including two security guards. An explosives-
laden ambulance carrying the Red Cross and Red Crescent insignia
was used to detonate the explosion. Red Cross officials indicated that
they would scale back their operations and remove remaining foreign
staff from Iraq.
Oct. 26, 2003A rocket attack on the Al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad, which housed
coalition military and civilian officials, wounded at least 16 people
and killed one American colonel. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D.
Wolfowitz was staying one floor above the blast, but was not injured
in the explosion.
Oct. 24, 2003New international pledges of grants and loans were submitted at the
Madrid International Conference on Reconstruction in Iraq. Some of
the largest previously unannounced pledges included Saudi Arabia -
$500 million in loans and $500 million in export credits; Kuwait -
$500 million in aid; the United Arab Emirates - $215 million in aid.
Other new pledges are reflected in Table 1.
Oct. 23, 2003The Madrid International Conference on Reconstruction in Iraq opened
in Madrid, Spain, with over 70 countries participating.
Oct. 22, 2003The World Bank Board of Directors authorized the Bank’s president
to pledge between $3 and $5 billion in loans to Iraq over the course of
the next several years.
Oct. 18, 2003South Korea announced it would commit an additional as-yet-
unspecified number of troops to Iraq as well as contribute $200 million
in aid over the following four years. That money was in addition to the
$60 million already pledged and the exact details of the troop
deployment were to be determined after consultations with
Oct. 17, 2003One week before the donor conference to be held in Madrid took
place, Spain announced it would contribute $300 million in aid to help
with the reconstruction of Iraq.
Oct. 16, 2003The day before President Bush’s visit, Japan announced it would
contribute $1.5 billion in grants to Iraq the following year, making it
the second largest donor to Iraq after the United States. Japanese
media also reported that the government was considering announcing
at the international donors conference in Madrid contributions of up
to $5 billion in loans over four years.
— The U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 1511 calling for
increases in troops and financial contributions to help with the
stabilization of Iraq. Immediately after, France and Germany stated
that they would not be committing troops.
— The United Nations and the World Bank announced plans to
establish the Reconstruction Development Fund Facility as a vehicle
for countries unwilling to donate to the U.S.-controlled program but
that wished to contribute to Iraq’s reconstruction.
Oct. 15, 2003Eight Senators proposed a compromise to President Bush’s $87 billion
supplemental request that would turn half of the $20 billion grant
earmarked for reconstruction into a loan to be repaid by Iraq. That $10
billion loan would be forgiven if other countries forgave 90% of Iraq’s
outstanding debt, not including post-Gulf War reparations.
Oct. 14, 2003A suicide car bomber struck outside of Turkey’s Embassy in Baghdad.
The driver and at least two staff members were killed in the explosion,
and thirteen bystanders were wounded.
— The World Bank announced a plan to loan 3.4 billion to 4 billion
dollars for Iraq over the next five years. The lending could start with
$500 million for 2004 and another $500 million for 2005.
Oct. 9, 2003Turkey’s Parliament approved the Oct. 6, 2003, Cabinet decision to
commit Turkish troops to the coalition forces in Iraq. Turkey was the
first predominantly Muslim nation to offer such a contribution, though
the exact nature of the commitment remained undecided. Iraq’s
Interim Governing Council responded by saying that they did not want
soldiers from neighboring countries meddling in their affairs.
— Violently marking the six-month anniversary of the fall of
Baghdad, a Spanish intelligence officer was murdered near his home
near Baghdad, a suicide bomber killed three Iraqi police and five
civilians, and an American soldier died in an ambush.
Sept. 29, 2003Jordan pledged to help train 30,000 Iraqi police and other security
forces; one-third of the total indigenous force to be trained and
deployed in post-war Iraq.
Sept. 23, 2003President Bush went before the U.N. General Assembly to ask for
military and financial support for the reconstruction of Iraq. Delegates
responded cooly and voiced concerns about Iraqi domestic security,
the continued U.S. presence, and the transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi
Sept. 17, 2003According to the Los Angeles Times, South Korea was considering
committing upwards of 10,000 troops to the coalition in Iraq. Troops
might include special forces and would be the largest Korean
deployment abroad since the Korean War.
Sept. 12, 2003U.S. officials tempered expectations of obtaining large numbers of
additional foreign troops for Iraq, saying that significant help will not
come in the short term. According to Senator Richard Lugar, chairman
of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, “those looking for a large
number of personnel [from other countries] will probably be
disappointed in the short run, but the need for a Security Council
resolution to form the basis of cooperation remains very, very
Sept. 11, 2003Prior to a meeting of the five permanent U.N. Security Council
members’ Foreign Ministers regarding international support for the
U.S.-led reconstruction of Iraq, a joint French-German draft
amendment and a separate Russian draft amendment were each
submitted to U.S. negotiators, offering the respective countries’
support in exchange for limitations on U.S. control over multinational
forces in Iraq. China said that it supported such proposals.
Sept. 8, 2003The United Kingdom sent an additional 1,000 troops to Iraq, bringing
total British strength to about 11,600. Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon
suggested that even more British troops could be deployed in the
— The Arab League unanimously agreed to offer Iraq’s seat, vacant
since the demise of the Hussein regime, to the US-supported
Governing Council at an Arab League Ministerial Meeting. It was not
clear if this was a formal recognition or a one-time gesture.
Sept. 7, 2003President Bush delivered a national address asking Congress for an
additional $87 billion to fund continuing military and reconstruction
efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The request included up to $2.2
billion for coalition partners in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the U.S. led war
on terrorism, and some of these funds would be used to subsidize the
deployment of foreign personnel in Iraq.
Sept. 5, 2003Australia announced that it would not send any additional troops to
Iraq, even under the auspices of a U.N. mandate. Australia had
contributed 2,000 troops to Operation Iraqi Freedom and maintained
about 800 personnel in the region for reconstruction.
Sept. 4, 2003The United States unveiled its draft proposal for increased
international cooperation in Iraq. Although initial reactions were
positive, France and Germany stated that the draft resolution “fell
short” of their expectations.
Aug. 28, 2003In a departure from previous policy, President Bush announced he
would consider a U.N. peacekeeping mission in Iraq so long as any
multinational force were led by the U.S. military.
Aug. 25, 2003The final contingent of Polish troops arrived in Iraq, rounding out their
forces to 2,400 and paving the way for Poland to take command of the
battlespace from the 1 Marine Expeditionary Force.
Aug. 22, 2003Concerned that it would be the only Muslim country to send troops to
Iraq, Turkish officials reached out to Pakistani leaders in an effort to
persuade Pakistan to commit its forces to the postwar effort.
Aug. 21, 2003Religious elements in Pakistan warned Pakistani President Perez
Musharraf not to consider U.S. requests to send peacekeepers to Iraq.
Some Islamic parties issued a religious edict, or fatwa, against support
for U.S. efforts in Iraq.
Aug. 20, 2003Shortly after the bombing of the U.N. headquarters in Baghdad, Japan
announced that it was delaying its deployment of 1,000 Japanese
peacekeepers to the Iraqi theater.
Aug. 19, 2003A truck bomb exploded outside the Canal Hotel in Baghdad, the
headquarters of the U.N. mission in Iraq, killing Special
Representative of the U.N. Secretary General Chief Sergio Vieira de
Mello and twenty-one others.
Aug. 7, 2003A truck bombed exploded outside of the Jordanian Embassy compound
in Baghdad, killing at least 17 individuals.
July 13, 2003The CPA announced the creation of the twenty-five member Iraqi
Governing Council drawn from exiles, current Iraqi residents, and
members of different ethnic and religious groups. The council would
have the authority to appoint interim ministers and review laws and
July 7, 2003The CPA chief administrator, Paul Bremer, announced a $6.1 billion
budget for the rest of 2003 in Iraq.
May 22, 2003The United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1483 that
called for a lifting of sanctions against Iraq and recognized the United
States and the United Kingdom as occupying powers until an
internationally recognized Iraqi government could be instituted in its
May 6, 2003President Bush appointed L. Paul Bremer III to to lead the Coalition
Provisional Authority, the temporary executive authority of Iraq.
Bremer was ambassador at large for counter-terrorism during the
Apr. 12, 2003Congress passed H.R. 1559 (P.L.108-11), the FY2003 Iraq Emergency
Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Bill that included $2.85 billion
for humanitarian relief and reconstruction in Iraq.
Apr. 9, 2003U.S. and coalition forces take control of Baghdad; Saddam Hussein’s
Baathist regime is forced to flee the capital.