V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring Children's Access to TV Programming
The V-Chip and TV Ratings:
Monitoring Children’s Access
to TV Programming
Updated November 24, 2008
Patricia Moloney Figliola
Specialist in Internet and Telecommunications Policy
Resources, Science, and Industry Division
The V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring Children’s
Access to TV Programming
To assist parents in supervising the television viewing habits of their children,
the Communications Act of 1934 (as amended by the Telecommunications Act of
1996) requires that, as of January 1, 2000, new television sets with screens 13 inches
or larger sold in the United States be equipped with a “V-chip” to control access to
programming that parents find objectionable. Use of the V-chip is optional. In
March 1998, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted the industry-
developed ratings system to be used in conjunction with the V-chip. Congress and
the FCC have continued monitoring implementation of the V-chip. Some are
concerned that it is not effective in curbing the amount of TV violence viewed by
children and want further legislation.
In July 2004, the FCC initiated a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) to seek comments
relating to the “presentation of violent programing and its impact on children.” The
Report in this proceeding was released by the FCC on April 25, 2007. In the report,
the FCC, among other findings, (1) found that on balance, research provides strong
evidence that exposure to violence in the media can increase aggressive behavior in
children, at least in the short term; (2) stated that the V-chip is of limited
effectiveness in protecting children from violent television content and observed that
cable operator-provided advanced parental controls do not appear to be available on
a sufficient number of cable-connected television sets to be considered an effective
solution at this time; and (3) found that studies and surveys demonstrate that the
voluntary TV ratings system is of limited effectiveness in protecting children from
violent television content.
Congress may wish to consider a number of possible options to support parents
in controlling their children’s access to certain programming. Some of these options
would require only further educational outreach to parents, while others would
require at least regulatory, if not legislative, action. Specifically, Congress may wish
to consider ways to promote awareness of the V-chip and the ratings system; whether
the current set of media-specific ratings will remain viable in the future or whether
a uniform system would better serve the needs of consumers; and whether
independent ratings systems and an “open” V-chip that would allow consumers to
select the ratings systems they use would be more appropriate than the current
Development of the V-Chip Ratings System.............................2
Initial Ratings System..........................................2
The Current “S-V-L-D” Ratings System............................3
Issues for Congress...............................................10
Media-Specific vs. Uniform Ratings..............................10
Independent Ratings Systems and an “Open” V-Chip.................11
Other Reports and Documents...................................12
List of Tables
Table 1. U.S. Television Industry’s Revised TV Ratings System............4
The V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring
Children’s Access to TV Programming
Research published in June 2007 by the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF)
indicates that two-thirds of parents say they are “very” concerned that children in this
country are being exposed to too much inappropriate content in the media, and a
substantial proportion think sex (55%) and violence (43%) in the media contribute
“a lot” to young people’s behavior. Thirty-two percent of parents cite TV as the
medium that concerns them the most, but the proportion who cite the Internet has
increased over the past two years from 16% to 21%. Sixty-six percent of parents say
they favor government regulations to limit the amount of sex and violence on TV
during the early evening hours, a proportion that is virtually unchanged from 2004.
Although exposure to inappropriate material has long been a concern to parents,
only since the Telecommunications Act of 19961 has there been a nationwide effort
to provide parents with a tool to control their children’s television viewing — the V-
chip.2 The V-chip, which reads an electronic code transmitted with the television3
signal (cable or broadcast), is used in conjunction with a television programming
rating system. Using a remote control, parents can enter a password and then
program into the television set which ratings are acceptable and which are
unacceptable. The chip automatically blocks the display of any programs deemed4
unacceptable; use of the V-chip by parents is entirely optional.
1 Telecommunications Act of 1996, P.L. 104-104, February 8, 1996, available at
[http://www.fcc.gov/Reports/ 1934new.pdf]. The 1996 Act amended the Communications
Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 101, et seq.), updating some existing sections and adding new
sections to account for new technologies. One such addition to the law was to mandate the
inclusion of a computer chip in new television sets to allow parents more control over the
programming viewed by their children (47 U.S.C. 303 (x)). The 1934 Act, as amended by
the 1996 Act, is available at [http://www.fcc.gov/Reports/tcom1996.pdf].
2 Although commonly believed to be short for “violence,” the V in V-chip is actually short
for “ViewControl,” the name given by the inventor of the device. See “V-Chip Technology
Invented by Professor Tim Collings,” available at [http://www.tri-vision.ca/documents/
Collings%20As%20Inventor.pdf]. See also, “The History of Invention,” available at
3 The ratings data are sent on line 21 of the Vertical Blanking Interval found in the National
Television System Committee (NTSC) signals used for U.S. television broadcasting.
4 This report focuses on the use of the V-chip and the ratings system as a tool to assist
parents in selecting appropriate television programming for their children. However, both
the V-chip and the ratings system can be used by a wide range of viewers, from individuals
Since January 1, 2000, all new television sets with a picture screen 13 inches or
greater sold in the United States have been required to be equipped with the V-chip.5
Additionally, some companies also offer devices that can work with non-V-chip TV
Development of the V-Chip Ratings System
The initial ratings system was developed during 1996 and 1997, but encountered
criticism from within Congress as well as from groups such as the National Parent-
Teacher Association. In response to those concerns, an expanded ratings system was
adopted on July 10, 1997, and went into effect October 1, 1997.
Initial Ratings System
The first step in implementing the mandate of the law was to create a ratings
system for television programs, analogous to the one developed and adopted for
movies by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) in 1968. The law
urged the television industry to develop a voluntary ratings system acceptable to the
FCC, and the rules for transmitting the rating, within one year of enactment. The
ratings system is intended to convey information regarding sexual, violent or other
indecent material about which parents should be informed before it is displayed to
children, provided that nothing in the law should be construed to authorize any rating
of video programming on the basis of its political or religious content.
After initial opposition, media and entertainment industry executives met with
then-President Clinton on February 29, 1996, and agreed to develop the ratings
system because of political pressure to do so. Many in the television industry were
opposed to the V-chip, fearing that it would reduce viewership and reduce advertising
revenues. They also questioned whether it violated the First Amendment. Industry
executives said they would not challenge the law immediately, but left the option
open should they deem it necessary.
who, themselves, do not wish to view content they find objectionable to individuals who
may be babysitting on an intermittent basis in their homes. Further, the V-chip and the
television ratings are closely related to another issue — that of broadcast indecency and how
to define and enforce the appropriate use of the public airwaves by the television media.
That issue is discussed in greater detail in CRS Report RL32222, Regulation of Broadcast
Indecency: Background and Legal Analysis, by Henry Cohen.
5 47 U.S.C. 303(x).
Beginning in March 1996, a group of television industry executives6 under the
leadership of Jack Valenti, then-President of the MPAA (and a leader in creating the
movie ratings), met to develop a TV ratings system. On December 19, 1996, the
group proposed six age-based ratings (TV-Y, TV-Y7, TV-G, TV-PG, TV-14 and TV-
M), including text explanations of what each represented in terms of program
content. In January 1997, the ratings began appearing in the upper left-hand corner
of TV screens for 15 seconds at the beginning of programs, and were published in
some television guides. Thus, the ratings system was used even before V-chips were
installed in new TV sets.
Ratings are assigned to shows by the TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board.
The board has a chairman and six members each from the broadcast television
industry, the cable industry, and the program production community. The chairman
also selects five non-industry members from the advocacy community, for a total of
News shows and sports programming are not rated. Local broadcast affiliates
may override the rating given a particular show and assign it another rating.
The Current “S-V-L-D” Ratings System
Critics of the initial ratings system argued that the ratings provided no
information on why a particular program received a certain rating. Some advocated
an “S-V-L” system (sex, violence, language) to indicate with letters why a program
received a particular rating, possibly with a numeric indicator or jointly with an age-
based rating. Another alternative was the Home Box Office/Showtime system of ten
ratings such as MV (mild violence), V (violence), and GV (graphic violence).
In response to the criticism, most of the television industry agreed to a revised
ratings system (see box, below) on July 10, 1997, that went into effect October 1,
1997. The revised ratings system added designators to indicate whether a program
received a particular rating because of sex (S), violence (V), language (L), or
suggestive dialogue (D). A designator for fantasy violence (FV) was added for
children’s programming in the TV-Y7 category. On March 12, 1998, the FCC
approved the revised ratings system, along with V-chip technical standards, and the
effective date for installing them.7
In May 1999, the FCC created a V-chip Task Force, chaired by then-
Commissioner Gloria Tristani. Among other things, the task force was charged with
ensuring that the blocking technology was available and that ratings were being
transmitted (“encoded”) with TV programs; educating parents about V-chip; and
gathering information on the availability, usage, and effectiveness of the V-chip. The
6 The group included the national broadcast networks; independent, affiliated and public
television stations; cable programmers; producers and distributors of cable programming;
entertainment and movie studios; and members of the guilds representing writers, directors,
producers and actors.
7 As of January 1, 2000, all new television sets with a picture screen 13 inches or greater
sold in the United States must be equipped with the V-chip.
task force issued several reports and surveys.8 A February 2000 task force survey
found that most broadcast, cable, and premium cable networks, and syndicators, were
transmitting ratings (“encoding”) and those that were not either planned to do so in
the near future or were exempt sports or news networks. Of the major broadcast and
cable networks, only NBC and Black Entertainment Television do not use the S-V-L-
D indicators, using the original ratings system instead.
Table 1. U.S. Television Industry’s Revised TV Ratings System
TV-Y All Children
This program is designed to be appropriate for all children. Whether
animated or live-action, the themes and elements in this program are
specifically designed for a very young audience, including children from
ages 2-6. This program is not expected to frighten younger children.
TV-Y7 Directed to Older Children
This program is designed for children age 7 and above. It may be more
appropriate for children who have acquired the developmental skills
needed to distinguish between make-believe and reality. Themes and
elements in this program may include mild fantasy or comedic violence,
or may frighten children under the age of 7. Therefore, parents may wish
to consider the suitability of this program for their very young children.
TV-Y7-FV Directed to Older Children-Fantasy Violence
For those programs where fantasy violence may be more intense or more
combative than other programs in the TV-Y7 category, such programs
will be designated TV-Y7-FV.
TV-G General Audience
Most parents would find this program appropriate for all ages. Although
this rating does not signify a program designed specifically for children,
most parents may let younger children watch this program unattended. It
contains little or no violence, no strong language and little or no sexual
dialogue or situations.
TV-PG Parental Guidance Suggested
This program contains material that parents may find unsuitable for
younger children. Many parents may want to watch it with their younger
children. The theme itself may call for parental guidance and/or the
program contains one or more of the following: moderate violence (V),
some sexual situations (S), infrequent coarse language (L), or some
suggestive dialogue (D).
8 See [http://www.fcc.gov/vchip].
TV-14 Parents Strongly Cautioned
This program contains some material that many parents would find
unsuitable for children under 14 years of age. Parents are strongly urged
to exercise greater care in monitoring this program and are cautioned
against letting children under the age of 14 watch unattended. This
program contains one or more of the following: intense violence (V),
intense sexual situations (S), strong coarse language (L), or intensely
suggestive dialogue (D).
TV-MA Mature Audience Only
This program is specifically designed to be viewed by adults and
therefore may be unsuitable for children under 17. This program contains
one or more of the following: graphic violence (V), explicit sexual
activity (S), or crude indecent language (L).
Federal Communications Commission Action
On April 25, 2007, the FCC released a report on the “presentation of violent
programing and its impact on children.”9 In the report, the FCC —
!found that on balance, research provides strong evidence that
exposure to violence in the media can increase aggressive behavior
in children, at least in the short term;
!noted that although viewer-initiated blocking and mandatory ratings
would impose lesser burdens on protected speech, skepticism
remains that they will fully serve the government’s interests in
promoting parental supervision and protecting the well-being of
!stated that the V-chip is of limited effectiveness in protecting
children from violent television content;
!observed that cable operator-provided advanced parental controls do
not appear to be available on a sufficient number of cable-connected
television sets to be considered an effective solution at this time;
!stated that further action to enable viewer-initiated blocking of
violent television content would serve the government’s interests in
protecting the well-being of children and facilitating parental
supervision and would be reasonably likely to be upheld as
9 In the Matter of Violent Television Programming and its Impact on Children (FCC 04-175,
MB Docket 04-261), Notice of Inquiry (NOI), Adopted July 15, 2004; Released July 28,
!found that studies and surveys demonstrate that the voluntary TV
ratings system is of limited effectiveness in protecting children from
violent television content;
!stated that Congress could develop an appropriate definition of
excessively violent programming, but such language needs to be
narrowly tailored and in conformance with judicial precedent;
!suggested that industry could on its own initiative commit itself to
reducing the amount of excessively violent programming viewed by
children (e.g., broadcasters could adopt a family hour at the
beginning of prime time, during which they decline to air violent
!observed that multichannel video programming providers (MVPDs)
could provide consumers greater choice in how they purchase their
programming so that they could avoid violent programming. (e.g.,
an a la carte regime would enable viewers to buy their television
channels individually or in smaller bundles); and
!found that Congress could implement a time channeling solution
and/or mandate some other form of consumer choice in obtaining
video programming, such as the provision by MVPDs of video
channels provided on family tiers or on an a la carte basis (e.g.,
channel blocking and reimbursement).
Since 2003, the television industry and the FCC faced increasing scrutiny for
what was perceived by many in Congress, as well as the public, as a sharp increase
in the amount of indecent programming. Two of the most notable events that have
taken place with respect to this issue were the FCC’s determination that the use of
the “f-word” by an artist during an award ceremony was not indecent and, four days
later, an incident during the Super Bowl XXXVIII half-time show that included a
performance in which one of the entertainer’s breasts was revealed.
On November 17, 2008, S. 602 (see also S.Rept. 110-268), the “Child Safe
Viewing Act of 2007,” was cleared for signature by President Bush. This bill was
introduced by Senator Mark Pryor and will require the FCC to begin a notice of
inquiry within 90 days of the law’s enactment to examine the existence and
availability of advanced blocking technologies that parents could use across a variety
of communications devices or platforms.
The Senate and the House of Representatives have each held one hearing on
issues related to the V-Chip:
!The Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
held a hearing, “Impact of Media Violence on Children,” on June 26,
2007.10 The hearing focused on issues related to the impact of
violent television programming on children, including issues raised
by the FCC report, “Violent Television Programming And Its Impact
!The House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on
Telecommunications and the Internet held a hearing, “Images Kids
See on the Screen,” on June 22, 2007.11 The hearing included
discussion of advertising for junk food aimed at children and on the
inability of the V-chip to screen out undesirable advertising.
During the 109th Congress, Senators John Rockefeller and Kay Bailey Hutchison
introduced S. 616, the Indecent and Gratuitous and Excessively Violent
Programming Control Act, on March 14, 2005. Specifically with respect to the
television ratings and the V-chip, S. 616 would have required the FCC to assess the
effectiveness of both the ratings system and the V-chip and report annually on it’s
findings. Further, if the FCC were to find that the ratings system and V-chip did not
adequately protect children from excessive violent and sexual content, it would be
required to undertake a rulemaking to require broadcasters to do more to protect
children from such content, including whether to use a new system not developed by
the industry. The bill would also have required more consistent and meaningful
labeling of violent and sexual content, to include re-broadcasting such labeling for
cable, or satellite. S. 616 was referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation on March 14, 2005; no further action was taken.12
Effectiveness of the V-Chip: Current Research
Since 1998, the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), has conducted ongoing
research into the impact of media violence on children and the effectiveness of the
10 The hearing webpage containing witness statements and the archived video is at
[http://commerce.senate.gov/public/inde x.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings .Hearing&
Hearing_ID=1879]. See also, Broadcasting & Cable, “TV Hammered In Violence Hearing,”
by John Eggerton, June 26, 2007. Available at [http://www.broadcastingcable.com/
11 The hearing webpage containing witness statements and the archived video is at
[http://energyc ommerce.house.gov/ cmte_mtgs/110-ti-hrg.062207.Ima ge sKidsSEE.shtml].
See also, Broadcasting & Cable, “Markey Calls V-chip Limited Success,” by John Eggerton,
June 22, 2007. Available at [http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6454591.html].
12 This bill also contains a measure related to increasing fines for violating rules on indecent
programming, but that issue is outside the scope of this report. For more information on that
topic, please refer to CRS Report RL32222, Regulation of Broadcast Indecency:
Background and Legal Analysis, by Henry Cohen.
V-chip and television ratings as tools for parents to control access to undesirable
television content.13 In the Foundation’s most recent report, published in June 2007,
two-thirds of parents say they are “very” concerned that children in this country are
being exposed to too much inappropriate content in the media, and a substantial
proportion think sex (55%) and violence (43%) in the media contribute “a lot” to
young people’s behavior. Thirty-two percent of parents cite TV as the medium that
concerns them the most, but the proportion who cite the Internet has increased over
the past two years from 16% to 21%. Sixty-six percent of parents say they favor
government regulations to limit the amount of sex and violence on TV during the
early evening hours, a proportion that is virtually unchanged from 2004.14
Overall, the parents interviewed for the study stated that they were more
concerned about inappropriate content on TV than in other media: 32% said TV
concerned them most, compared to 21% who said the Internet, 9% movies, 7%
music, and 8% video games. Half (50%) of all parents said they have used the TV
ratings to help guide their children’s viewing, including slightly more than one in
four (28%) who said they use them “often.”15
Furthermore, the study revealed that while use of the V-chip has increased
substantially since 2001, when 7% of all parents said they used it, it remains modest
at just 15% of all parents, or about four in 10 (42%) of those who have a V-chip in
their television and know it. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of parents who have used the
V-chip said they found it “very” useful.16
Other significant findings reported included:
!After being read arguments on both sides of the issue, nearly two-
thirds of parents (63%) said they favored new regulations to limit the
amount of sex and violence in TV shows during the early evening
hours, when children were most likely to be watching (35% are
!A majority (55%) of parents said ratings should be displayed more
prominently and 57% said they would rather keep the current rating
systems than switch to a single rating for TV, movies, video games,
and music (34% favor the single rating).18
!When read the competing arguments for subjecting cable TV to the
same content standards as broadcasters, half of all parents (52%)
13 See Kaiser Family Foundation, Program on Study of Entertainment Media & Health:
14 KFF Study, p. 3.
15 KFF Study, p. 8.
16 KFF Study, p. 7.
17 KFF Study, p. 8.
said that cable should be treated the same, while 43% said it should
!Most parents who have used the TV ratings said they found them
either “very” (38%) or “somewhat” (50%) useful.20
!About half (52%) of all parents said most TV shows are rated
accurately, while about four in ten (39%) said most are not.21
!Many parents do not understand what the various ratings guidelines
mean. For example, 28% of parents of young children (2-6 years
old) knew what the rating TV-Y7 meant (directed to children age 7
and older) while 13% thought it meant the opposite (directed to
children under 7); and only 12% knew that the rating FV (“fantasy
violence”) is related to violent content, while 8% thought it meant
In releasing the survey results, Vicky Rideout, Vice President and Director of
the Kaiser Family Foundation’s Program for the Study of Entertainment Media and
Health, commented, “While many parents have used the ratings or the V-chip, too
many still don’t know what the ratings mean or even that their TV includes a V-
A number of groups conducted research and published opinion pieces
questioning the usefulness and/or legality of the V-chip and the ratings system after
the 1996 Telecommunications Act was enacted (e.g., the Progress and Freedom
Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, Cato Institute, Morality in Media).
Since that time, opposition has waned and even the controversies over inappropriate
content being broadcast live did not renew it. Further, while the V-chip and the
ratings system can block objectionable or indecent programming when used in
tandem, since the incidents were broadcast “live” and did not have ratings that would
have blocked them, neither the V-chip nor the ratings system would have been
effective in either case. Therefore, some could claim that the V-chip and the ratings
system, while useful tools in many cases, remain unreliable tools for parents because
they cannot guarantee all objectionable content will be blocked.
20 KFF Study, p. 5.
22 KFF Study, p. 6.
23 KFF News Release, “Parents Favor New Limits on TV Content in Early Evening Hours;
Half of Parents Say Cable TV Should Adhere to Same Standards as Broadcast TV; Use of
the V-Chip is Up,” September 23, 2004. Available at [http://www.kff.org/entmedia/
Issues for Congress
Congress may wish to consider a number of possible options to support parents
in monitoring and controlling their children’s access to certain programming. Some
of these options would require only further educational outreach to parents, while
others would require at least regulatory, if not legislative action.
Awareness of the V-Chip and the Ratings System
According the 2004 KFF Study, parents also indicated that they would like to
see the ratings displayed more prominently to make it easier to notice them. Such
findings are consistent with a lack of wide-spread usage or even awareness of the V-
chip. Specifically, as noted above, the 2004 KFF study indicated that even after years
of being available, only 42% of parents who have a V-chip and are aware of it
actually use it. However, of the parents that had used the V-chip, 89% found it
“somewhat” to “very” useful.24 Those figures would indicate that increased
knowledge of the V-chip would substantially increase parents’ perceptions of control
over their children’s television viewing.
One of the easiest approaches to increasing the use of the V-chip may likely be
to step up parental awareness programs through, for example, public service
announcements on television, educational materials on the FCC website, and possibly
pubic service advertisements in print media. Additionally, such educational materials
could be made available on Congressional Member websites for constituents to
download. Such actions would not require any new legislation or additional work by
the ratings board or related entities; however, some initially may require funding.
Media-Specific vs. Uniform Ratings
One of the ongoing issues related to the use of the V-chip is that, according to
the KFF study, only about half of parents actually use the television ratings. That is
low in comparison with the movie ratings, which are used by approximately 78% of
parents, but in line with the use of ratings for music and video games.25 One
contributor to the low use of the ratings is likely that so few parents actually
understand the ratings. For example, as stated earlier, only 12% of parents of young
children knew that “FV” is the rating for Fantasy Violence; further, 8% believed it
to mean “Family Viewing.” As noted by the researchers in their report, the FV rating
“is the only rating that denotes anything about the violent content of children’s
programming, one of the impetuses for the development of the ratings system” in the
first place. Finally, overall, 20% of parents had never even heard of the ratings
In light of those figures, it could appear that parents might prefer a single,
unified ratings system that would be applied across different media. However, while
24 KFF Study, p. 7.
25 KFF Study, p. 4.
26 KFF Study, p. 6.
34% of parents said they would prefer a unified system, 57% opposed a unified
system.27 Given the overall findings by KFF regarding parents’ knowledge and use
of the ratings system, there appears to be enough ambiguity on this issue to warrant
further investigation by Congress.
Independent Ratings Systems and an “Open” V-Chip
Under current legislative and regulatory mandates, the V-chip is only required
to “read” the TV Parental Guidelines and the MPAA (movie) Ratings. This means
that any independent system can only be used to augment parental knowledge, not
to program the V-chip. So, while a range of varied, independent ratings systems can
serve to provide additional information to parents, they cannot be used with the
current closed V-chip technology. In order for these ratings to become as useful as
possible, the V-chip would have to be able to read them.
The opportunity to encourage the further development of private ratings systems
exists in the transition to digital television. Beginning in April 2005, all broadcasters
must simulcast 100 percent of their National Television System Committee
(commonly referred to as “NTSC”) programming on their digital channel; by the end
of 2006, broadcasters must turn off their analog signal.28 Through either regulatory
(i.e., FCC) or legislative action, television manufacturers could be required to install
an open V-chip that could be reprogrammed to read altered or even completely new
ratings. An “open” V-chip requirement would allow changes to the current system
to be read as well as accommodate any other ratings system(s). This issue is
currently under consideration at the FCC.29
27 KFF Study, p. 8.
28 The December 31, 2006, deadline may be extended under a number of circumstances,
detailed in CRS Report RL31260, Digital Television: An Overview, by Lennard Kruger.
29 In the Matter of Second Periodic Review of the Commission’s Rules and Policies Affecting
the Conversion To Digital Television, MB Docket No. 03-15, RM 9832, Report and Order,
September 4, 2004, paras. 154-159. Available at [http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/
attachmatch/FCC-04-192A1.pdf]. One issue that remains under consideration involves new
language concerning the V-chip and how it will be incorporated into digital television sets.
The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) filed a petition to change the language that
the FCC adopted in the Order. That petition is available at
[http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-03-1292A1.pdf]. The opposition
to CEA’s Petition for Reconsideration by Tri-Vision (the inventor of the V-chip) is available
See also In the Matter of Children’s Television Obligations of Digital Television
Broadcasters, MM Docket No. 00-167, Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking, November 23, 2004, paras. 62-65. Available at [http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/
Other Reports and Documents
“The Perils of Mandatory Parental Controls and Restrictive Defaults,” Progress
and Freedom Foundation, April 2008, [http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/pops/
“Parents, Media, and Public Policy: A Kaiser Family Foundation Survey,”
Kaiser Family Foundation, Fall 2004, [http://www.kff.org/entmedia/
“V-chip Frequently Asked Questions,” Children Now,
[ h ttp://www.childrennow.org/medi a/vchip/vchip-faq.html] .
“Summary of Focus Group Research on Media Ratings Systems,” A Study
Commissioned by PSV Ratings, Inc., Spring 2003,
[ h ttp://www.independentratings .org/ Parents_Views.pdf] .
Federal Communications Commission V-chip Information,
[ h ttp://www.fcc.gov/vchip/] .