The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005:
Basic Facts and Information
Updated January 19, 2007
Ryan Elliot Granger
Information Research Specialist
Knowledge Services Group
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005:
Basic Facts and Information
The most recent presidential inauguration took place January 20, 2005. This
report provides the legislation, S.Con.Res. 2, concerning the inauguration, the
estimated costs of the 2005 inauguration from both public and private sources,
general information and facts concerning past inaugurations, as well as the financing
(private funding only) of past inaugural festivities. Also provided is a brief list of
resources on the history of presidential inaugurations and compilations of inaugural
This report was authored previously by Tom Coipuram, Jr.
In troduction ......................................................1
Inauguration Day as a Federal Holiday.............................1
Funding for the 2005 Inauguration and Festivities....................2
Funding from Government Sources............................2
Funding from Private Sources................................3
Costs (Private Funding Only) of Past Inaugural Festivities..........3
Past Presidential Inaugurations...............................4
Recent Presidential Inaugurations.............................4
Inaugural Committees, Tickets, and Parade Information
Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC)...5
Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC)........................6
Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-AFIC)...6
Additional Sources of Information....................................7
Presidential Inaugural Addresses..................................7
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005:
Basic Facts and Information
In response to a variety of questions relating to the presidential inauguration, the
following selected information has been compiled: legislation concerning the
inauguration; inauguration day as a federal holiday; the costs of the 2005
inauguration from both public and private sources; the expenditures of recent
inaugural festivities (private funding only provided); historical facts on past
presidential inaugurations; the various inaugural committees supporting the
inauguration; and historical information on the parade, the swearing-in, and other
The most recent inauguration of the President of the United States took place1
on Thursday, January 20, 2005.
In early 2004, both the Senate and House of Representatives approved
S.Con.Res. 94, a resolution establishing the Joint Congressional Committee on
Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC), and S.Con.Res. 93, a resolution authorizing the use
of the Capitol Rotunda by the JCCIC.
The authorities contained in S.Con.Res. 94 and S.Con.Res. 93 expired at the end
of the 108th Congress, and were renewed by the 109th Congress on January 4, 2005,
under S.Con.Res. 2, which extended the “life of the JCCIC and the provisions of
S.Con.Res. 93 and S.Con.Res. 94 of the 108th Congress.”
Inauguration Day as a Federal Holiday
According to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) website, federal
employees who work “in the District of Columbia, Montgomery or Prince George’s
Counties in Maryland, Arlington or Fairfax Counties in Virginia, or the cities of
Alexandria or Fairfax in Virginia, and who [are] regularly scheduled to perform non-
1 The U.S. Constitution, Twentieth Amendment, “Commencement of the Terms of Office,”
states, “The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of
January ...” (ratified Jan. 23, 1933).
overtime work on Inauguration Day, [are] entitled to a holiday” on Inauguration Day,
which is every fourth January 20th after 1965.2
Funding for the 2005 Inauguration and Festivities
Funding for the most recent inauguration came from both public and private
sources, and totaled approximately $157.8 million.
Funding from Government Sources. Funding from government sources,3
including the federal and DC governments, was $115.5 million. These funds
provided security, the inaugural swearing-in ceremony, maintenance, cleanup,
bleachers, fencing, a holiday for federal workers in the Washington area, etc. The
costs incurred by the federal and the DC governments included the following:
!Swearing-in Ceremony — The authorized funding for the
swearing-in ceremony of the President and Vice President, which
was conducted by the JCCIC, was $1.2 million.4
!District of Columbia Government — The total cost to DC was
$14.3 million. This included $10.3 million to the Metropolitan
Police Department, $2.5 million to the Office of Property
Management, and $1.5 million to other entities providing public
works, health, transportation, fire, emergency management,
sanitation, communications, and business services.5
!National Park Service (NPS) — According to the NPS Budget
Office,6 the National Capital Region (which provided the cleanup
services, the temporary fencing, and maintenance) expended
$846,000, and the United States Park Police spent $650,000 of the
appropriated funds, and was reimbursed for $144,000 by the
Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC).
!Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-
AFIC) — According to their JTF-AFIC, the estimated cost for the
inauguration was $4 million. This included funding for computers,
communications, equipment, supplies, vehicles, utilities,
maintenance, travel, etc.
2 See OPM’s 2005 Federal Holiday website at [http://www.opm.gov/FEDHOL/2005.asp].
3 This figure does not include funding provided by the Department of Defense (DOD) and
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which were unable to provide detailed
4 The Legislative Branch Appropriations Act for FY2004, P.L. 108-83, Sept. 30, 2003, 117
5 “Inaugural Expenses,” pages G-41 and G-42 from the District of Columbia’s FY 2007
Proposed Budget and Financial Plan.
6 George Bulman, budget analyst with NPS Budget Office, in a phone conversation with the
author on Oct. 10, 2006.
!Architect of the Capitol (AOC) — The AOC had a budget of $2.8
million7 for a construction project to improve the West Front of the
Capitol for the swearing-in ceremony.
!Office of Personnel Management (OPM) — The OPM Office of
Congressional Relations estimates that the holiday for federal
workers in the Washington area cost approximately $84.9 million,
!U.S. Secret Service (USSS) — The amount budgeted by USSS for
the event was $4.1 million. An additional $2.6 million from the
USSS special event fund was also utilized, for a total of $6.7 million
spent by USSS.9 The Secret Service employed security measures
such as counter-surveillance of venues, controlled access to the
parade route and event sites, and magnetometer screening of more10
than 297,000 event attendees.
Funding from Private Sources. The 55th Presidential Inaugural Committee
(PIC) reported a net of $42.3 million.11 This reportedly funded various inaugural
festivities, such as fireworks, inaugural balls, the parade, the concert on the Mall, and
other unofficial receptions and parties.
Costs (Private Funding Only) of Past Inaugural Festivities.
Following is information on financing of past inaugural festivities from private
funding sources only:12
!George W. Bush, 2001, estimated $30 million;13
7 Debbie Thomas, deputy director of the Architect of the Capitol Budget Office, in a phone
conversation with the author on Oct. 3, 2006.
8 Dino Carluccio, deputy director of OPM Office of Congressional Relations, in an e-mail
to the author on Oct. 10, 2006. This estimate from late 2004 covers all federal employees
(not counting U.S. Postal Service employees) in Washington, DC; Prince George’s and
Montgomery Counties in Maryland; and Fairfax and Arlington Counties, Alexandria, Falls
Church, and Fairfax City in Virginia.
9 Tony Lawrence, appropriations specialist in the U.S. Secret Service Office of
Congressional Affairs, in a phone conversation with the author on Sept. 22, 2006.
10 Department of Homeland Security’s Performance and Accountability Report: Fiscal Year
11 Federal Elections Committee “Report of Donations Accepted” for 55th Presidential
Inaugural Committee, July 19, 2005. Net donations — after total donations refunded are
subtracted from total donations accepted — equaled $42,305,082.
12 Estimated costs through 1997 are from the 1997 Presidential Inaugural Committee and
Facts on File, 1997.
13 “Bush Takes Oath of Office as 43rd U.S. President,” Facts on File World Press Digest,
!Bill Clinton, 1997, estimated $29 million (included is the $9 million
surplus from the 1993 inauguration); 1993, estimated between $25
million and $30 million;
!George H. W. Bush, 1989, estimated. $30 million;
!Ronald Reagan, 1985, estimated $20 million; 1981, estimated $16.3
!Jimmy Carter, 1977, estimated $3.5 million; and
!Richard Nixon, 1973, estimated $4 million.
Past Presidential Inaugurations. Historical information on past
presidential inaugurations can be found at the Library of Congress Website,
Presidential Inaugurations: “I Do Solemnly Swear ...,” which is a collection of 400
selected items from each of the 63 inaugurations, from George Washington’s in 1789
to George W. Bush’s in 2001. A wealth of historical information can be found at
!Diaries and letters of Presidents and of those who witnessed the
!Handwritten drafts of inaugural addresses;
!Past inaugural tickets and programs;
!Inaugural prints, photographs, and sheet music;
!Facts about the oaths of office, precedents, and notable events; and
!Bible and scripture passages for each President since George
Recent Presidential Inaugurations.
The PBS Online NewsHour website provides historical information on past
inaugurations, including a photo gallery and inauguration fashion, plus links to
President George W. Bush’s 2001 and 2005 inaugurations.
[ h ttp://www.pbs.org/ newshour/inaugu ration/]
The National Archives and Records Administration’s Clinton Inaugurations Website
provides information and links to Bill Clinton’s 1993 and 1997 inaugurations.
[ http://clinton4.nara.gov/tex t only/ WH/Family/html/Inauguration.html]
A brief history of the first presidential inauguration, including information on the
tradition, language, and technology in past and current inaugurations, and a quiz to
test your knowledge of inaugural trivia are also available at the National Archives
and Records Administration’s Inauguration site.
[ h ttp://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/presidents.html#inaug]
The Census Bureau’s Facts for Features Special Edition — Inauguration Day: (Jan.
Jan. 20, 2001.
across the United States named “Bush” and “Cheney,”plus milestones of other
[http://www.census.gov / P r es s - R e l eas e/ www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_
The Presidential Inaugural — Documentary Photographs website of the Smithsonian
Institution provides photographs of recent inaugurals (1985-1997), including
photographs of inaugural festivities held at various Smithsonian Museums since
“I Do Solemnly Swear”: A Half Century of Inaugural Images from the U.S. Senate
Collection features historic engravings that depict inaugural festivities at the Capitol
and around Washington, DC, from Franklin Pierce’s 1853 inauguration to Theodore
Roosevelt’s 1905 inauguration.
[ h ttp://www.senate.gov/artandhi story/ a rt/common/image_collection/inaugu ration_
Inaugural Addresses. Texts of the inaugural addresses of U.S. Presidents
from George Washington to George W. Bush’s second inaugural address in 2005 are
available at the Avalon Project of the Yale Law School website at
[http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/inaug.htm] or the Bartleby.com
Website at [http://www.bartleby.com/124/]. At Bartleby.com, click on “Presidents
Not Inaugurated” for brief information on Presidents who were not inaugurated and
therefore did not make inaugural addresses: Presidents John Tyler, Millard Fillmore,
Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, and Gerald Ford.
Inaugural Committees, Tickets, and Parade
Information (Historical Information)
The following is basic information on the three major committees14 that plan and
support the various inaugural activities.
Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC).
The JCCIC, at [http://www.inaugural.senate.gov/], was responsible for conducting
the official swearing-in ceremony of the President and Vice President at the Capitol
on January 20, 2005. This committee also distributed blocks of tickets for the
swearing-in ceremony to Members of both houses, and Members decided how they
wished to distribute the tickets. Detailed information about the allotments and the
distribution process was available after the November 2004 election, and tickets were
distributed in early January 2005. Historical information concerning the JCCIC and
the names of past and current members of the committee are available at the JCCIC
website. Also included is a link to “Facts & Firsts,” which provides historical
information on past presidential inaugurations from George Washington to William
14 Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC) Fact Sheet, Sept. 19,
J. Clinton. Although the JCCIC office closed at the end of March 2005, the JCCIC
Website is to be available permanently.
Presidential Inaugural Committee (PIC). The PIC organized, planned,
and executed most of the inaugural celebration activities, including the inaugural
parade, opening ceremonies, concerts, galas, and inaugural balls. The PIC, which is
directly responsible to the newly elected President and is staffed by volunteers,
generally from the winning party, was formed shortly after the general election on
November 2, 2004. The PIC handled all requests for ball tickets, the parade, and gala
The PIC, with the support of the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural
Committee (JTF-AFIC, below), also selected the high school and college bands that
participated in the inaugural parade. Traditionally, the bands are chosen so that each
of the 50 states is represented. For additional information concerning the PIC,
including the leadership of the 2005 PIC, see the White House November 19, 2004,15
Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (JTF-AFIC).
The JTF-AFIC, which was established by the Secretary of Defense, continued the
tradition of military participation in the presidential inaugurations that dates back to
AFIC only supplemented support to the PIC. For example, it did not choose the
groups that took part in the inauguration, but collected and organized applications
from groups and individuals interested in participating in various inaugural events.
Joint Task Force Armed Forces
ATTN: Band Control
330 C Street SW, Suite 4064 A
Washington, DC 20597-5580
In past presidential inaugurations, a Senator or Representative has either
nominated or recommended a school band from their state or district to the PIC for
the inaugural parade. School bands, in addition to submitting an application with the
JTF-AFIC at the appropriate time in 2008, can also contact their Senators or
Representatives if they are interested in participating in the parade in 2009.
15 Full text of the Nov. 19, 2004, White House press release is available at the White House
website at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/11/20041119.html].
Additional Sources of Information
Boller, Paul F. Presidential Inaugurations. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2001.
Durbin, Louise. Inaugural Cavalcade. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971.
Hurja, E. Edward. History of Presidential Inaugurations. New York: New York
The Inaugural Story, 1789-1969. New York: American Heritage Pub. Co., 1969.
Kittler, Glenn D. Hail to the Chief: The Inauguration Days of Our Presidents.
Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1965.
Lomask, Milton. “I Do Solemnly Swear ...”: The Story of the Presidential
Inauguration. New York: Ariel Books, 1966.
McKee, Thomas Hudson. Presidential Inaugurations: from George Washington,
Presidential Inaugurations: A Selected List of References. Washington, DC: Library
of Congress, 1960.
Presidential Inaugural Addresses
Humes, James C. My Fellow Americans: Presidential Addresses That Shaped
History. New York: Praeger, 1992.
The Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents. Ed. with introd. by John Gabriel Hunt.
Rev. ed. New York: Gramercy Books, 1997.
Newton, Davis. The Presidents Speak: The Inaugural Addresses of the American
Presidents from Washington to Clinton. New York: H. Holt and Co., 1994.