Military Base Closures and Realignment: Status of the 2005 Implementation Plan
Military Base Closures and Realignment:
Status of the 2005 Implementation Plan
Updated May 31, 2007
Kristine E. Blackwell
National Defense Fellow
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Military Base Closures and Realignment: Status of the
2005 Implementation Plan
As part of the implementation for the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure
(BRAC) round, the Department of Defense (DOD) required the military departments
and defense agencies to create action plans for each of the BRAC Commission’s
recommendations. These plans, called “Business Plans”, describe the implementing
actions, their timing, cost, and other related issues. DOD is to use these plans as a
mechanism to ensure proper coordination among the defense agencies, allocate
BRAC resources more efficiently, and to monitor the status of the commission’s
recommendations. To date, 219 of the 237required plans have been completed and
approved. This report answers frequently asked questions regarding the plans. It will
be updated as necessary.
In troduction ......................................................1
Frequently Asked Questions.........................................1
What is a Business Plan’s objective?...............................1
What information is included in a Business Plan?....................2
Why is it called a “Business” Plan?
Who developed the plans?.......................................3
Who will have access to the plans?................................3
Why are Business Plans required for BRAC 2005 and not for previous BRAC
What time period does the Business Plan cover?.....................4
Will the Business Plans be updated?...............................4
How are the Business Plans prepared?.............................5
What is the current status of the plans?.............................6
List of Figures
Figure 1. Business Plan Review Structure...............................6
Military Base Closures and Realignment:
Status of the 2005 Implementation Plan
Recommendations in the final report of the 2005 Defense Base Closure and
Realignment Commission (hereafter referred to as the BRAC Commission or1
commission) became binding on November 9, 2005. In September and October
2005, Mr. Michael Wynne, then Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for
Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, issued instructions to the military
departments and defense agencies2 in DOD to create a Business Plan for each of the
recommendations drafted by the commission and approved by the President.
Following is a series of frequently asked questions concerning these Business Plans.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is a Business Plan’s objective?
A Business Plan specifies all actions necessary to comply with all or part of a
particular commission recommendation, including timing, estimated cost, military
construction, and environmental remediation, among others.
The 2005 BRAC round was the fifth since 1988. However, because this round
is occurring concurrently with DOD “transformation” efforts as well as the
redeployment of forces from overseas installations, it is the most complex of all
rounds to execute. Secretary Wynne devised the Business Plan approach as a
management tool serving two main functions: to ensure that military departments and
1 For more information see CRS Report RS22291 Military Base Closures: Highlights of
the 2005 BRAC Commission Report and Its Additional Proposed Legislation, by Daniel H.
Else and David E. Lockwood.
2 “Military departments” is the term used by DOD to refer collectively to the Department
of the Army, the Department of the Navy (includes the Marine Corps), and the Department
of the Air Force. “Defense agencies” refers to 16 organizations that fall under the DOD but
are not a uniformed service. Defense agencies include the Defense Finance and Accounting
Service, the Defense Logistics Agency, and the Missile Defense Agency. For a complete
listing of defense agencies, see the U.S. Government website at
[ h t t p : / / www.f i r s t gov.gov/ Age nc i e s / Fe de r a l / Exe c u t i ve / De f e ns e . s h t ml ] .
defense agencies adequately plan and coordinate implementation, and to assist DOD
in allocating resources and prioritizing tasks to meet the statutory deadline.3
A Business Plan is not intended to provide an all inclusive description of
activity but only the level of detail needed by administrators to ensure coordination
and to allocate BRAC funds effectively. The plan describes necessary steps that must
be taken to carry out the commission’s recommendations and the estimated time-
frames and costs associated with those steps. Detailed planning is not included but
can be found in associated documentation referenced in the plans. Also, some details
concerning to the planning, particularly with regard to personnel, are deliberately
excluded in order to avoid providing potentially useful information to adversaries.
What information is included in a Business Plan?
Secretary Wynne issued his guidelines for Business Plan preparation in two
memoranda. The first, dated September 21, 2005, provided a basic outline of major
headings and general guidance regarding the information to be included. The
second, dated October 12, 2005, described the necessary data in greater detail.4
Each plan should contain:
!The relevant recommendation from the commission’s final report.
!A description of the steps needed to satisfy the recommendation.
!A list of the DOD organizations, including military units, that will
have to be moved in order to fulfill the requirements of the
!A time-table for the movement of organizations listed above. Where
applicable, this will also include a schedule for installation closure.
!A description of the estimated costs and savings associated with
moving each organization.
!Details concerning military construction necessary as a result of
!All required environmental studies at both the losing and gaining
bases and the estimated costs for them.
!Identification of land and permanent structures (real property) that
will need to be sold, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of.
!A list of all DOD agencies affected by the plan along with
assurances that those agencies have participated in the plan’s
development and concur with its content.
Why is it called a “Business” Plan?
Secretary Wynne selected the term “Business Plan” based on the premise that
the plans present the “business case” for the implementation of each
3 Under existing law, BRAC actions must be completed no later than six years after the date
on which the President transmitted the Commission's report, or September 15, 2011.
4 Copies of the memos can be obtained by contacting Mr. Daniel Else. Mr. Else can be
reached at (202) 707-4996 or DElse@crs.loc.gov.
recommendation. They outline financial estimates of costs and savings as well as
describe movement plans throughout the BRAC implementation process.
Furthermore, use of the term “business” is consistent with terminology currently
employed within DOD. Soon after taking over as Secretary of Defense, Donald
Rumsfeld announced his intention to steer the department towards more cost
effective operations by adopting commercial business models. A June 18, 2001,
DOD press release announced the creation of the Senior Executive Committee to
function as a “business board of directors for the Department” and the Business
Initiative Council, created to “recommend good business practices and implement
cost savings that could offset the funding requirements for personnel programs,
infrastructure recapitalization, equipment modernization and transformation
initiatives.”5 Secretary Wynne adopted the practices of private enterprise to create
these Business Plans.
Who developed the plans?
Secretary Wynne assigned each BRAC Commission recommendation, in whole
or in part, to a military department or defense agency. Generally the entity that has
the largest number of resources tied to the action is responsible for preparing and
executing the corresponding Business Plan.
When more than one service or defense agency is involved in a realignment,
DOD gave consideration to the location receiving resources as a result of the
recommendation. DOD reasoned that the receiving agency could best decide how
to align additional personnel and facilities with their existing infrastructure. As an
example, in commission recommendation #131, which calls for the co-location of
military criminal investigative agencies with the Counter Intelligence Field Agency
and the Defense Security Service at the United States Marine Corps Base, Quantico,
Virginia, responsibility for developing the Business Plan was assigned to the
Department of the Navy.
Who will have access to the plans?
Because they were intended to be internal resource allocation documents, these
Business Plans were not intended to circulate outside DOD. Nevertheless, once the
DOD FY2008 budget proposal is submitted to Congress, much of the information
contained in the plans, if not the plans themselves, will likely become publicly
accessible. This is because the plans will form the basis for DOD’s allocation of
BRAC funding and estimated budgets; thus supporting data from the plans will likely
be included in the military department and defense agency Budget Justification
Documents, or “J-Books.” J-Books are usually provided annually to Congress to
explain how the military departments and defense agencies plan to use requested
5 See Department of Defense’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/
Why are Business Plans required for BRAC 2005 and not for
previous BRAC rounds?
BRAC 2005 differed from previous BRAC rounds in a number of ways. Unique
to 2005 was the number and complexity of the recommendations. In their final
report, the commission noted, “the 2005 BRAC recommendations exceeded the
number considered by all prior BRAC Commissions combined. In addition to the
unprecedented number, many DoD recommendations were extremely complex,
proposing intertwining movements between and among numerous installations.”6
The planning and execution of the 1991, 1993, and 1995 BRAC rounds centered
on the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, each of which crafted its own
list of recommendations. DOD consolidated, coordinated, and forwarded these lists
to the President for approval. The military departments were then responsible for
implementing the approved recommendations within the six years required by law.
However, the very high level of complexity of the 2005 process led DOD’s senior
leadership to institute centralized control of the planning and resource allocation
process while at the same time preserving a decentralized implementation policy for
the military departments and defense agencies.
Furthermore, DOD believed the coordination required by a Business Plan’s
development process would provide an added benefit. Coordination was intended
to produce an efficient plan but also to create conditions in which potentially
problematic issues could be identified and resolved prior to implementation. This
was of particular importance where commission recommendations resulted in new7
methods of operation such as with "Joint Basing."
What time period does the Business Plan cover?
Business Plans are intended to cover current planning through FY2011, when
the law mandates implementation must be complete. Action affecting a location after
FY2011, such as its post-closure use by the local community, is not covered in the
Will the Business Plans be updated?
DOD will require updates to each of the Business Plans biannually — in the fall,
to examine the next year’s budget request and in the spring, to assess current budget
execution. DOD considers these plans “living documents” that are likely to change
as operational priorities and resource availability shift or any number of other
6 BRAC Commission report, Executive Summary, pg. iii. Of the 190 closures and
realignments recommended by the DoD, the commission approved 119 with no changes and
accepted 45 with amendments. See CRS Report RS22291 Military Base Closures:
Highlights of the 2005 BRAC Commission Report and Its Additional Proposed Legislation,
by Daniel H. Else and David E. Lockwood.
7 For an explanation of “Joint Base,” see “What is the current status of the plans?”, p. 6.
variables and circumstances change. For example, a survey of a planned renovation
of an existing facility may reveal that new construction would be more cost effective.
How are the Business Plans prepared?
The head of each military department or defense agency assigned responsibility
for the preparation of each Business Plan to a subordinate organization. For
example, the Secretary of the Air Force assigned the plan for the realignment of
McGuire Air Force Base to Air Mobility Command, which is responsible for that
installation. Air Mobility Command is empowered to coordinate details of the plan
with the other services affected by that particular BRAC recommendation. After the
plan’s formulation, the Secretary of the Air Force or his delegate reviews and
approves it. The plan is then submitted to the Installation Capability Council (ICC)
at DOD for review and approval.
The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment
(DUSD (I&E)), currently Mr. Philip W. Grone, chairs the ICC, which consists of
senior executives and military officers drawn from the Office of the Secretary of
Defense, the military departments, and the Joint Staff.8 After approving each
Business Plan, the ICC forwards it to the department’s higher-echelon Infrastructure
Steering Group (ISG) for further review.9 The ISG chair, the Under Secretary of
Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD (AT&L)), has the final
Before this approval is granted, each Business Plan is reviewed by the ISG
Executive Secretariat, the DOD Base Realignment and Closure Office. This review
includes a legal assessment of whether the Business Plan meets the BRAC
Commission’s intent for the recommendation.
Once approved, the military departments and defense agencies put the Business
Plans into action. Figure 1 illustrates the review structure:
8 The Joint Staff is the military organization in the Pentagon that directly supports the
Chairman and the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
9 The Infrastructure Steering Group is chaired by the USD (AT&L), and is composed of the
Vice Chairman of the Joint chiefs of Staff, the military department assistant secretaries for
installations and environment, the service vice chiefs, and the DUSD (I&E). Since the
September 21 and October 12, 2005, memoranda, the DOD Comptroller and the Director,
Program Analysis and Evaluation have also been added as members.
Figure 1. Business Plan Review
Infrastructure Steering Group
Installation Capability Council
Defense AgenciesMilitary Departments
What is the current status of the plans?
To date, 219 of the 23710 required plans have been approved. Three of the 18
unapproved plans were reviewed by the DOD BRAC Office and sent back for further
analysis. Examples of further analysis includes ensuring the plans address DOD’s
legal obligations and further assessment of implementation alternatives. The
remaining 15 unapproved plans still require action.
Of the 15 unapproved plans, 12 are for “joint bases.” Joint bases involve
locations where installations of two or more services are either adjoining or within
close proximity and the BRAC Commission has recommended that the installations’
support functions be combined and operated by a single service. DOD is currently
developing Joint Base Implementation Guidance to provide the military departments
and defense agencies direction regarding how the combined bases will be established
and operated. Once this guidance is issued by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the
The remaining three of the 15 unapproved plans involve Army-run chemical
munitions depots where closure requires compliance with international treaty
obligations.11 Affected locations are Newport Chemical Depot, Indiana; Umatilla
10 The initial number of required business plans was 240 however, the DOD BRAC Office
determined that three of those were not necessary. Two of the three were for Naval Air
Station Oceana, Virginia Beach, Virginia, and Naval Broadway Complex, San Diego,
California. Those two installations met certain conditions set by the BRAC Commission
are therefore no longer slated for closure. The third plan no longer required was for a
recommendation requiring the establishment of an oversight board for the Naval Post
Graduate School, Monterey, California, and the Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-
Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The DOD BRAC Office determined that a detailed plan
was not necessary for a recommendation so narrowly defined and limited in scope.
11 The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use
of Chemical Weapons and Their Destruction, commonly known as the Chemical Weapons
Convention, prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical
Chemical Depot, Oregon; and Deseret Chemical Depot, Utah. It is possible that the
required destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles at these depots may not occur
within the six-year statutory period for completion of BRAC actions.
Questions regarding this report should be directed to Mr. Daniel Else at (202)