Legislative Branch: FY2008 Appropriations

Legislative Branch:
FY2008 Appropriations
Updated January 23, 2008
Ida A. Brudnick
Analyst on the Congress
Government and Finance Division



The annual consideration of appropriations bills (regular, continuing, and supplemental) by
Congress is part of a complex set of budget processes that also encompasses the
consideration of budget resolutions, revenue and debt-limit legislation, other spending
measures, and reconciliation bills. In addition, the operation of programs and the spending
of appropriated funds are subject to constraints established in authorizing statutes.
Congressional action on the budget for a fiscal year usually begins following the submission
of the President’s budget at the beginning of each annual session of Congress. Congressional
practices governing the consideration of appropriations and other budgetary measures are
rooted in the Constitution, the standing rules of the House and Senate, and statutes, such as
the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974.
This report is a guide to the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year.
It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Committee on
Appropriations and Senate Subcommittee on Legislative Branch of the Senate Committee
on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major
issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff
relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
This report is updated as soon as possible after major legislative developments, especially
following legislative action in the committees and on the floor of the House and Senate.
NOTE: A Web version of this document with active links is
available to congressional staff at
[http://beta.crs.gov/cli/level_2.aspx?P RDS_CLI _ITEM _ID
=73].



Legislative Branch: FY2008 Appropriations
Summary
From beginning of the fiscal year on October 1, 2007, until the enactment of the
Consolidated Appropriations Act on December 26, 2007, funding for the legislative
branch was provided through a series of interim continuing appropriations measures.
The first, which was signed by President Bush on September 29, 2007, provided
funding at FY2007 levels through November 16, 2007. Three additional continuing
appropriations measures were enacted on November 13, December 14, and December

21, 2007.


Legislative branch entities requested $4.3 billion in new budget authority for
FY2008. The House version of the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill,
H.R. 2771, was introduced on June 19, 2007. The bill proposed $3.1 billion in new
budget authority for the legislative branch for FY2008, not including Senate items.
This amount reflects a 4.1% increase over the $2.98 billion (including the FY2007
supplemental but not including Senate items) approved by Congress for FY2007 and
less than the 13% increase requested.
The Senate version of the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill,
S. 1686, was reported to the Senate on June 25, 2007. The bill would have provided
approximately $2.78 billion in new budget authority, not including House items.
This amount reflects an increase of 5.2% over the nearly $2.65 billion (including the
FY2007 supplemental but not including House items) approved by Congress for
FY2007 and less than the 16% increase requested.
By comparison, in FY2007, overall legislative branch budget authority was
increased by approximately 1.5% (including supplemental appropriations), which had
followed a 4.2% increase in new budget authority for FY2006 and a 3.1% increase
approved for FY2005.
Among issues that were considered during discussions on the FY2008 budget
are the following:
!completion of the Capitol Visitor Center and consideration of the
Architect of the Capitol’s request for an additional $20 million for
this project;
!the renaming of the “Great Hall” of the Capitol Visitor Center;
!repair of the Capitol Power Plant tunnels and the role of the Office
of Compliance in monitoring progress on this effort;
!funds requested to support the “Greening of the Capitol” initiative
and the use of alternative fuels;
!the merger of the U.S. Capitol Police and the Library of Congress
Police;
!funding for the acquisition of new technology for the “Books for the
Blind” program; and
!the future of the Open World Leadership Program.
This report will be updated to reflect major congressional action.



Area ofCRS
ExpertiseName DivisionTelephone and E-mail
AppropriationsBill HeniffG&F7-8646
P rocess wheni ff@crs.l o c.go v
Sandy StreeterG&F7-8653
sstreeter@crs.loc.gov
CommitteeEric PetersenG&F7-0643
Funding andepetersen@crs.loc.gov
Staffing
Franking Matthew G&F 7 -3467
Glassman mglassman@crs.loc.gov
LegislativeIda BrudnickG&F7-6460
Operat i ons ibrudnick@crs.loc.gov
Division abbreviations: G&F = Government and Finance



Contents
Most Recent Developments..........................................1
Introduction to the Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill..................2
Changes in Structure of Legislative Branch Appropriations
Effective in FY2003........................................2
Activities and Programs Related to the Legislative Branch but
Not Funded in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill..........3
Reestablishment of House Subcommittee on Legislative Branch th
for the 110 Congress......................................4
Status of FY2008 Appropriations.....................................5
Action on the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill ..........5
Submission of FY2008 Budget Request on February 5, 2007........5
Congressional Caps on FY2008 Legislative Branch
Discretionary Funds....................................5
Senate and House Hearings on FY2008 Budget..................5
House Appropriations Committee Markup and Report (FY2008)....6
House Passage of the FY2008 Bill (H.R. 2771)..................6
Senate Markup and Report of FY2008 Bill (S. 1686)..............7
Action on FY2007 Supplemental Appropriations.....................7
FY2008 Legislative Branch Funding Issues.............................8
Capitol Complex Security — U.S. Capitol Police.....................8
Funding Issues............................................8
Administrative Issues.......................................9
Architect of the Capitol........................................10
Overall Funding Levels....................................10
Capitol Visitor Center (CVC)...............................10
Capitol Power Plant Utility Tunnels..........................10
Administrative Provisions..................................11
House of Representatives.......................................12
Overall Funding..........................................12
House Committee Funding.................................12
Members’ Representational Allowance........................12
Senate ......................................................13
Overall Funding..........................................13
Senate Committee Funding.................................13
Senators’ Official Personnel and Office Expense Account.........13
Support Agency Funding.......................................13
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)..........................13
Highlights of House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget
of the CBO..........................................14
Library of Congress (LOC).................................14
Highlights of the House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget
of the LOC..........................................16
Congressional Research Service (CRS)........................16
Government Accountability Office (GAO).....................16



of the GAO..........................................17
Government Printing Office (GPO)...........................17
Additional Provisions.....................................18
Highlights of House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget
of the GPO..........................................19
Other Funding...............................................19
Office of Compliance......................................19
Open World Leadership Center..............................20
John B. Stennis Center for Public Service Training
and Development.....................................21
For Additional Reading............................................28
CRS Report.................................................28
Selected Websites............................................28
List of Tables
Table 1. Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY1995 - FY2007..............4
Table 2. Status of Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2008 ..............5
Table 3. Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2008 ....................22
Table 4. Capitol Police Appropriations, FY2008 ........................24
Table 5. Architect of the Capitol Appropriations, FY2008 ................24
Table 6. Senate Appropriations, FY2008...............................25
Table 7. House of Representatives Appropriations, FY2008 ...............26



Legislative Branch:
FY2008 Appropriations
Most Recent Developments
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, which was enacted on December1

26, 2007, provides $3.97 billion in new budget authority for the legislative branch.


This total includes an across-the-board rescission of 0.25% which was applied to
accounts within the legislative branch division of the act.
From the beginning of the fiscal year on October 1, until the enactment of the
consolidated bill (H.R. 2764), the legislative branch was funded by a series of
continuing appropriations resolutions. On September 29, 2007, the President signed
into law P.L. 110-92.2 The law provided for continued funding for most federal
activities, including the legislative branch, at FY2007 levels through November 16,
2007. P.L. 110-116, which was enacted on November 13, continued this funding
through December 14, 2007. P.L. 110-137, enacted on December 14, 2007, and
P.L. 110-149, enacted on December 21, 2007, also provided continuing funding for
the legislative branch prior to the enactment of the Consolidated Appropriations Act.
These laws also provided gratuity payments to the survivors of a total of four
deceased Members.
Prior to the consideration of the consolidated appropriations measure, both the
Senate and House of Representatives considered separate legislation funding the
legislative branch for FY2008. S. 1686, the Senate version of the FY2008
Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, was reported to the Senate on June 25, 2007.
The bill, which proposed nearly $2.78 billion in new budget authority (not including
House items), had been marked up by the Senate Committee on Appropriations on
June 21. At the markup, the committee voted unanimously to report the bill without
amendment.
H.R. 2771, the House version of the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations
Bill, was introduced on June 19, 2007, following the House Committee on
Appropriations markup on June 12 and the subcommittee markup on June 6. The
House bill would have provided $3.1 billion in new budget authority (not including


1 P.L. 110-161; Dec. 26, 2007. A conference report on H.R. 2764 was not issued.
Representative David Obey, Chairman of the House Appropriations Committee, inserted
explanatory materials into the Congressional Record of December 17 providing detailed
tables on the discretionary spending included in the bill. Information on the legislative
branch was included on pages H16371-H16380. Figures throughout this report are derived
from the Chairman Obey’s explanatory materials but will be updated if additional
information becomes available.
2 P.L. 110-92; Sept. 29, 2007; 121 Stat. 989.

Senate items). The bill, with two amendments, passed the House on June 22 with a
roll call vote of 216-176.
Introduction to the Legislative Branch
Appropriations Bill
Since FY2003, the annual legislative branch appropriations bill has usually
contained two titles. Appropriations for legislative branch agencies are contained in
Title I. These entities, as they have appeared in the annual appropriations bill, are the
Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items;3 Capitol Police; Office of
Compliance; Congressional Budget Office; Architect of the Capitol, including the
Capitol Visitor Center; Library of Congress, including the Congressional Research
Service; Government Printing Office; Government Accountability Office; and Open
World Leadership Program.
Title II contains general administrative provisions and, from time to time,
appropriations for legislative branch entities. For example, Title II of the FY2003
Act, P.L. 108-7, contained funds for the John C. Stennis Center for Public Service
Training and Development and for the Congressional Award Act.
On occasion the bill may contain a third title for other provisions. For example,
Title III of the FY2006 legislative branch appropriations act, P.L. 109-55, contained
language providing for the continuity of representation in the House of
Representatives in “extraordinary circumstances.”
Changes in Structure of Legislative Branch
Appropriations Effective in FY2003
Prior to enactment of the FY2003 bill, and effective in FY1978, the legislative
branch appropriations bill was structured differently. Title I, Congressional
Operations, contained budget authority for activities directly serving Congress.
Included in this title were the budgets of the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint
Items; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office; Architect of the Capitol,
except funds for Library of Congress buildings and grounds; Congressional Research
Service, within the Library of Congress; and congressional printing and binding
activities of the Government Printing Office.
Title II, Related Agencies, contained budget authority for activities considered
by the Committee on Appropriations not directly supporting Congress, including
those for the Botanic Garden; Library of Congress (except the Congressional


3 Funded within the Joint Items account are the Joint Economic Committee, Joint Committee
on Taxation, Office of the Attending Physician, Capitol Guide Service and Special Services
Office, and Statements of Appropriations. The Special Services Office, within the Capitol
Guide Service, provides accessible and sign-language guided tours of the Capitol. The
Statement of Appropriations account funds preparation of appropriations statements for each
calendar year. These statements contain enacted appropriations, indefinite appropriations,
authorized contracts, and a history of annual appropriations required by law.

Research Service, which was funded in Title I); Library of Congress buildings and
grounds maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; Government Printing Office
(except congressional printing and binding costs, which were funded in Title I); and
Government Accountability Office, formerly named the General Accounting Office.
Occasionally, from FY1978 through FY2002, the annual legislative appropriations
bill contained additional titles for such purposes as capital improvements and special
one-time functions.
Activities and Programs Related to the Legislative Branch but
Not Funded in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill
In addition to activities funded in the annual legislative branch appropriations
bill, funds are contained in the legislative branch section of the U.S. Budget for other
programs and entities. These include permanent budget authority for both federal
funds and trust funds and for non-legislative entities.
Permanent federal funds and permanent trust funds are available as the result of4
previously enacted legislation and do not require annual action. Permanent federal
funds and trust funds are included in the U.S. Budget, prepared by the Office of
Management and Budget. The U.S. Budget also contains non-legislative entities
within the legislative branch budget. They are funded in other appropriation bills, but
are counted as legislative branch funds by the Office of Management and Budget for
bookkeeping purposes.5
For another picture of the legislative branch budget, the total legislative branch
request of $4.8 billion in the FY2008 U.S. Budget must be adjusted. When reflecting


4 Estimated FY2008 permanent federal funding authority in the legislative branch section
of the U.S. Budget is $461 million, and comprises House member pay ($98 million); Senate
member pay ($23 million); House and Senate use of foreign currencies (for use of Members
traveling in foreign countries) ($25 million); Judiciary office building development and
operations fund ($-2 million); and Library of Congress payments to copyright owners ($317
million). FY2008 estimated permanent trust fund authority is $18 million, comprising the
Library of Congress gift and trust fund account ($14 million); U.S. Tax Court trust fund ($1
million); John Stennis Center ($2 million); and “Other Legislative Branch Agencies” ($1
million), which includes the U.S. Capitol Preservation Commission trust funds ($1 million).
Source: Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, FY2008, Table

28 — Federal Programs by Agency and Account (Washington: GPO, 2007), pp. 3-8.


(Figures are rounded to the nearest million).
5 The FY2008 U.S. Budget contains $57 million in federal funds for non-legislative entities
under two headings: (1) “U.S. Tax Court” ($45 million); and (2) “Other Legislative Branch
Agencies, Legislative Branch Boards and Commissions” ($12 million), which includes the
United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission ($4 million), the
Commission on International Religious Freedom ($3 million), and other legislative branch
boards and commissions ($5 million). The $57 million figure does not contain $14 million
listed in the U.S. Budget for the Open World Leadership Center. Source: Analytical
Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, FY2008, Table 28 — Federal
Programs by Agency and Account (Washington: GPO, 2007), pp. 3-8. (Figures are rounded
to the nearest million).

only items contained in the annual legislative branch appropriation bill, the funding
request for the legislative branch is $4.3 billion.
Reestablishment of House Subcommittee on
Legislative Branch for the 110th Congress
Prior to the 109th Congress, the legislative branch appropriations bill was
handled by the House Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Committee on
Appropriations. Under a House Appropriations Committee reorganization plan
released on February 9, 2005, the subcommittee was abolished and its jurisdiction
assumed by the full Appropriations Committee. Although changes were made in the
structure of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, announced in March 2005, the
Subcommittee on Legislative Branch was retained. Under a reorganization plan
announced by the House Appropriations Committee on January 4, 2007, the House
Subcommittee on Legislative Branch was reestablished for the 110th Congress.6
Table 1. Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY1995 - FY2007
(budget authority in billions of current dollars)a
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2.184 2.203 2.288 2.581b 2.486 c 2.730 d 3.252 e 3.461 f 3.528 g 3.640 h 3.793 i 3.852 j
a. These figures represent current dollars, exclude permanent budget authorities, and contain supplementals and
rescissions. Permanent budget authorities are not included in the annual legislative branch appropriations
bill, but rather, are automatically funded each year.
b. Includes budget authority contained in the FY1999 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-275),
the FY1999 emergency supplemental appropriation (P.L. 105-277), and the FY1999 supplemental
appropriation (P.L. 106-31).
c. Includes budget authority contained in the FY2000 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-57); a
supplemental and a 0.38% rescission in P.L. 106-113; and supplementals in P.L. 106-246 and P.L. 106-
554.
d. This figure contains: (1) FY2001 appropriations contained in H.R. 5657, legislative branch appropriations bill;
(2) FY2001 supplemental appropriations of $118 million and a 0.22% across-the-board rescission
contained in H.R. 5666, miscellaneous appropriations bill; and (3) FY2001 supplemental appropriations
of $79.5 million contained in H.R. 2216 (P.L. 107-20). H.R. 5657 and H.R. 5666 were incorporated by
reference in P.L. 106-554, FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act. The first FY2001legislative branch
appropriations bill, H.R. 4516, was vetoed Oct. 30, 2000. The second legislative branch appropriations
bill, H.R. 5657, was introduced Dec. 14, 2000, and incorporated in P.L. 106-554. This figure does not
reflect any terrorism supplementals funds released pursuant to P.L. 107-38.
e. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 107-68; transfers from the legislative branch emergency response
fund pursuant to P.L. 107-117; and FY2002 supplemental appropriations in P.L. 107-206.
f. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 108-7, FY2003 Omnibus Appropriations Act, and supplemental
appropriations in P.L. 108-11.
g. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 108-83, FY2004 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act. Additional
FY2004 provisions which did not contain appropriations were contained in P.L. 108-199, the FY2004
Consolidated Appropriations Act.
h. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 108-447, Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2005 (adjusted by
a 0.80% rescission also contained in P.L. 108-447), and P.L. 109-13, FY2005 Emergency Supplemental.
i. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 109-55, FY2006 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act (adjusted
by a 1.0 % rescission contained in P.L. 109-148) and the FY2006 Emergency Supplemental
Appropriations Act (P.L. 109 — 234)


6 “Senate, House Appropriations Set Subcommittee Plans for New Congress,” House
Appropriations Committee press release, January 4, 2007, available at
[http://appropriations.house.gov/press_releases.aspx]. For additional information on
subcommittee history, see CRS Report RL31572, Appropriations Subcommittee Structure:
History of Changes from 1920-2007, by James V. Saturno.

j. This figure contains appropriations in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007
and P.L. 110-28, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans’ Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability
Appropriations Act, 2007.
Status of FY2008 Appropriations
Table 2. Status of Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2008
Conference Report
Committee MarkupHouseHouseSenateSenateConferenceApprovalPublic
Repo rt Passage Repo rt Passage Repo rt La wH o use Sena t e H o use Sena t e
06/19/07 06/25/07 12/26/07
06/12/0706/21/07H.R. 2771(H.Rept.06/22/07(216-176)S. 1686 (S.Rept.H.R. 2764(P.L.
110-198) 110-89) 110-161)
Action on the FY2008 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill
Submission of FY2008 Budget Request on February 5, 2007. The
FY2008 U.S. Budget contained a request for $4.3 billion in new budget authority for
legislative branch activities, an increase of 14% from FY2007 levels.7 A substantial
portion of the increase requested by legislative branch entities is to meet (1)
mandatory expenses, which include funding for annual salary adjustments required
by law and related personnel expenses, such as increased government contributions
to retirement based on increased pay, and (2) expenses related to increases in the
costs of goods and services due to inflation. Amendments to the request were
transmitted to Congress by the President on June 8, 2007.8
Congressional Caps on FY2008 Legislative Branch Discretionary
Funds. As required by law, both houses are considering separate 302(b) budget
allocations for legislative branch discretionary and mandatory funds in FY2008. The
House has allocated $4.150 billion in total budget authority for the legislative branch,
and the Senate allocation is $4.177 billion.9
Senate and House Hearings on FY2008 Budget. The House
Subcommittee on Legislative Branch held budget hearings on March 1 for the
Architect of the Capitol, on March 8 for the U.S. Capitol Police, on March 22 for the


7 FY2007 total includes levels enacted in the Revised Continuing Appropriations
Resolution, 2007 (P.L. 110-5; Feb. 15, 2007; 121 Stat. 8).
8 The President’s letter transmitting the changes to the budget request is available at
[ h t t p : / / www.whi t e house.go v/ omb/ budget / a me ndment s / a me ndment _6_8_07.pdf ] .
9 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Report on the Revised Suballocation
of Budget Allocations for Fiscal Year 2008, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 110-236
(Washington: GPO, 2007); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Further
Revised Allocation to Subcommittees of Budget Totals from the Concurrent Resolution forthst
Fiscal Year 2008, 110 Cong., 1 sess., S. Rept. 110-133 (Washington: GPO, 2007).

Library of Congress and the Open World Leadership Program, on March 27 for the
Government Printing Office, on March 29 for the House of Representatives, on April
19 for the Government Accountability Office, and on April 26 for the Office of
Compliance and Congressional Budget Office. Public witnesses were heard from on
May 1. The subcommittee also held additional hearings during these months to
conduct oversight and discuss long-range planning requirements and challenges.
The Senate Subcommittee on Legislative Branch held hearings on the FY2008
budget requests on March 2 for the Architect of the Capitol; on March 16 for the
Government Accountability Office, the Government Printing Office, the
Congressional Budget Office, and the Office of Compliance; on March 30 for the
Office of the Senate Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper and the U.S. Capitol Police;
and on May 3 for the Secretary of the Senate and the Library of Congress.
House Appropriations Committee Markup and Report (FY2008). The
House Subcommittee on Legislative Branch held a markup on the FY2008 bill on
June 6, and the full committee marked up and reported the FY2008 bill on June 12.
Major issues considered at both markups included efforts to rename the Great Hall
of the Capitol Visitor Center “Emancipation Hall,” the future of the Open World
Leadership Program, and the use of funds to renovate an FDA building proposed for
use as swing space for House offices. The House Committee on Appropriations
issued its report (H.Rept. 110-198) on June 19, 2007.
House Passage of the FY2008 Bill (H.R. 2771). On June 22, the House
passed H.R. 2771 by a vote of 216-176 (Roll call #548).10 Floor consideration
followed adoption of the rule on the bill, H.Res. 502 (H.Rept. 110-201), earlier that
day by a vote of 222-179 (Roll call #544).11 The rule waived all points of order
against the bill and made in order only those amendments specified in the committee
report, which included
!an amendment to be offered by Representative Jane Harman of
California preventing the funds made available in the act from being
used to purchase light bulbs unless the light bulbs have an “energy
star” or “Federal Energy Management Program” designation,
!an amendment to be offered by Representative Jeff Flake of Arizona
reducing the amount available for the Government Printing Office
(GPO) Congressional Printing and Binding account by $3.2 million,
and
!an amendment to be offered by Representative Jim Jordan of Ohio
requiring an across-the-board reduction of 4% for funds appropriated
in this act.


sup>10 11 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, June 22, 2007, pp. H6960-H6969.

During floor consideration of the bill on June 22, the first amendment was
agreed to, although some Members expressed concerns about adapting this provision
to account for the historical lighting in the Capitol Complex.12
The second amendment, which reduced the House committee’s recommended
appropriation for the Government Printing Office by $3.2 million, was agreed to with
a roll call vote of 218-191.13 Supporters argued that this amendment would reduce
the number of copies of the Congressional Record printed for Congress each day,
while opponents argued this would add to the GPO budgetary shortfall and that any
reduction in copies should be achieved through the authorizing committee.
The House voted against the third amendment in a roll call vote of 177-231.14
Senate Markup and Report of FY2008 Bill (S. 1686). The Senate
Appropriations Committee marked up and reported its version of the legislative
branch appropriations bill on June 21. Senator Mary Landrieu of Louisiana, chairmanth
of the Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch during the 110 Congress, noted that
the committee’s bill would provide nearly $2.8 billion in new budget authority (not
including House items), a 5% increase ($138.65 million) over the FY2007 budget
and $289 million below agency requests.
Both Senator Landrieu and Senator Wayne Allard of Colorado, the ranking
minority member of the Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, voiced their
concern over using this bill to change the name of the main hall of the Capitol Visitor
Center, as proposed by the House, and noted that the Senate version of the bill
contains language to effectuate the merger between the U.S. Capitol Police and the
Library of Congress Police.
No amendments were considered, and the committee voted 29-0 to report the
bill. Senator Landrieu reported an original measure (S. 1686) to the Senate on June

25, with a report (S.Rept. 110-89).


Action on FY2007 Supplemental Appropriations
While the House and Senate Appropriations Committees were considering
requests for FY2008, Congress also considered bills providing supplemental
appropriations for FY2007. H.R. 1591 was reported as an original measure by the15
House Appropriations Committee on March 20, 2007. S. 965 was introduced as an
original measure by the Senate Appropriations Committee on March 22, 2007.


s2 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, June 22, 2007, pp. H6992-H6993.
13 Roll call no. 545, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, June 22, 2007, p. H6996.
14 Roll call no. 546, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, June 22, 2007, p. H6996.
15 For additional information on the supplemental appropriations bill, see CRS Report
RL33900: FY2007 Supplemental Appropriations for Defense, Foreign Affairs, and Other
Purposes, by Stephen Daggett, Amy Belasco, Pat Towell, Susan B. Epstein, Connie
Veillette, Curt Tarnoff, and Rhoda Margesson.

The House passed its bill on March 23 by a vote of 218-212. The Senate then
called up the House-passed bill, inserted the text of the Senate Appropriations
Committee version of the bill, amended it, and passed it March 29 by a vote of 51-47.
As agreed to by the House and Senate, the legislative branch chapters of the bill
included $6.4 million in new budget authority for the House of Representatives for
business continuity and disaster recovery, an additional $374,000 for the Government
Accountability Office, a gratuity payment to the widow of a deceased Member, and
$50 million for Capitol Power Plant repairs. The President vetoed H.R. 1591 on May

1, 2007. A veto override attempt in the House failed on a 222-203 vote.


A new supplemental appropriations measure, H.R. 2206, was introduced in the
House on May 8. The House passed the bill two days later by a roll-call vote of 221
— 205.16 The Senate amended and passed the measure with an amendment by voice
vote on May 17, 2007.17 After the House and Senate resolved their differences
through amendments between the houses, the bill was signed into law by the
President on May 25, 2007.18 In addition to the appropriations proposed in
H.R. 1591, as passed by both chambers, P.L. 110-28 contained $10 million for a
radio modernization program for the U.S. Capitol Police. The measure provided two
gratuity payments for the surviving spouses of two Representatives. The measure also
established within the Office of the Architect of the Capitol the position of Chief
Executive Officer for Visitor Services. The official, who will be appointed by the
Architect and compensated at the rate of the Chief Operating Officer of the Office of
the Architect, will be responsible for the operation and management of the Capitol
Visitor Center.
FY2008 Legislative Branch Funding Issues
Capitol Complex Security — U.S. Capitol Police
Funding Issues. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 provides $281
million for the Capitol Police, an increase of 5.8% over the $265.6 million (including
supplemental appropriations) provided in FY2007. It is 6.4% less than the $299.07
million requested for FY2008. The House bill, as passed on June 22, would have
provided $286 million for the U.S. Capitol Police (USCP). The House proposal was
$20.4 million (7.7%) more than the FY2007 level. The Senate bill, as reported by
the Committee on Appropriations, would have provided $284 million in new budget
authority, an increase of nearly 7% over FY2007 funds.
Appropriations for the police are contained in two accounts — a salaries
account and a general expenses account. The salaries account contains funds for the
salaries of employees, including overtime; hazardous duty pay differential; and
government contributions for employee health, retirement, Social Security,


s6 Roll Call No. 333, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, May 10, 2007,
pp. H4866-H4867.
17 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, May 17, 2007, p. S6219.
18 P.L. 110-28; May 25, 2007; 121 Stat. 112.

professional liability insurance, and other benefit programs. The general expenses
account contains funds for expenses of vehicles; communications equipment;
security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis;
hazardous material response; uniforms; weapons; training programs; medical,
forensic, and communications services; travel; relocation of instructors for the
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; and other administrative and technical
support, among other expenses. A second appropriation relating to the Capitol Police
appears within the Architect of the Capitol account for Capitol Police buildings and
grounds.
The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $232.2 million for salaries and
$48.8 million for general expenses. The total for salaries is $7.7 million more than
the $224.5 million provided in the House-passed bill (H.R. 2771) and $6.3 million
more than the $225.9 million recommended by the Senate Committee on
Appropriations (S. 1686). The new budget authority for general expenses is $12.7
million less than the figure from the House bill and $9.3 million less than the Senate
committee recommendation.
The Capitol Police request would have allowed for an additional 30 civilian
FTEs (full-time equivalent employees), increasing the civilian level to 444 FTEs and
the total department FTE level to 2,125.19 The House Appropriations Committee, in
its report, stated that its recommendation supports a total of 1,681 sworn and 439
civilian FTEs. The Senate report stated that the level recommended by the Senate
Appropriations Committee would support the “current sworn staffing of 1,681
officers, and 10 new officers associated with Library of Congress police attrition” and
“new positions in financial management, security service, information system and
facilities management.”20 The statement issued by Chairman Obey and inserted into
the Congressional Record states that the funding provided in the Consolidated
Appropriations Act supports 1,702 sworn personnel and 391 civilian personnel.21
Administrative Issues. Both the House and Senate reports reference the
merger of the U.S. Capitol Police and Library of Congress Police, an issue which was
addressed in hearings in both chambers during consideration of the FY2008 bill.
Language requiring the merger was contained in the FY2003 Consolidated22
Appropriations Resolution. A separate bill implementing the merger, H.R. 3690,
was introduced in the House on September 27, 2007. The House Administration
Committee held a markup and ordered the bill reported on November 7, 2007. The
House passed the bill on December 5, 2007, and the Senate passed the bill with an
amendment on December 17, 2007. The House agreed to the Senate amendment the


19 Justification of Budget Estimates, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations,
Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008,thst
hearings, part 1, 110 Cong., 1 sess. (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 229.
20 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 25.
21 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007, p. H16371.
22 P.L. 108-7; Feb. 20, 2003; 117 Stat. 362-364.

following day with a vote of 413-0.23 The legislation became P.L. 110-178 on
January 7, 2008. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act also contained
language requiring the merger.
Architect of the Capitol
The AOC is responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and
preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, which includes the Capitol and
its grounds, House and Senate office buildings, Library of Congress buildings and
grounds, Capitol Power Plant, Botanic Garden, Capitol Visitors Center, and Capitol
Police buildings and grounds. The Architect is responsible for the Supreme Court
buildings and grounds, but appropriations for their expenses are not contained in the
legislative branch appropriations bill.
Overall Funding Levels. Operations of the Architect are funded in the
following ten accounts: general administration, Capitol building, Capitol grounds,
Senate office buildings, House office buildings, Capitol power plant, Library
buildings and grounds, Capitol Police buildings and grounds, Capitol Visitor Center,
and Botanic Garden.
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $414.3 million in new
budget authority for the Architect of the Capitol. The House-passed bill (H.R. 2771)
would have provided $348.38 million (not including Senate items), and the Senate
bill (S. 1686), as reported from the Committee on Appropriations, would have
provided $352.5 million (not including House items). The Architect had requested
$481.7 million.
Capitol Visitor Center (CVC).24 The Architect’s FY2008 budget request
included $20.0 million for the CVC project. An additional $13.9 million was
requested for Capitol Visitor Center operational costs. The requested funding was
addressed in both House and Senate hearings this year. Some of the questions posed
by Members of the legislative branch subcommittees have related to the final cost of
the project, its estimated completion and occupancy date, and the center’s daily
administration after it is opened to the public. The FY2008 Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $20.2 million for the CVC project and $8.5 million for
operational costs.
Capitol Power Plant Utility Tunnels. The condition of the Capitol Power
Plant utility tunnels, and the funds necessary to repair them, have been of interest to
appropriators during the FY2006, FY2007, and FY2008 appropriations cycles. The
funding for repairs follows a complaint issued February 28, 2006, by the Office of
Compliance regarding health and safety violations in the tunnels. The Office of
Compliance had previously issued a citation due to the condition of the tunnels on
December 7, 2000. On November 16, 2006, the Government Accountability Office
(GAO) wrote a letter to the Chair and Ranking Minority Members of the Senate


23 Roll no. 1182, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, Dec. 18, 2007, p. H16795.
24 For additional information on the Capitol Visitor Center, see CRS Report RL31121, The
Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview, by Stephen W. Stathis.

Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, and the
House Committee on Appropriations, examining the conditions of the tunnels, plans
for improving conditions, and efforts to address workers’ concerns.25 Potential
hazards identified by the Office of Compliance and GAO include excessive heat,
asbestos, falling concrete, lack of adequate egress, and insufficient communication
systems. In May 2007, the Architect of the Capitol and the Office of Compliance
announced a settlement agreement for the complaint and citations.
Steps necessary to remedy the situation, as well as the actions and roles of the
Architect of the Capitol and the Office of Compliance, have been discussed at
multiple hearings of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees in 2006 and
2007. Other committees have also expressed concern about the utility tunnels and
allegations of unsafe working conditions. For example, the Senate Committee on
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Subcommittee on Employment and
Workplace Safety, heard testimony on tunnel safety during a March 1, 2007, hearing
on the effects of asbestos.
Following the complaint by the Office of Compliance, Congress provided $27.6
million in FY2006 emergency supplemental appropriations to the Architect of the
Capitol for Capitol Power Plant repairs,26 and an additional $50 million was provided
in emergency supplemental appropriations for FY2007.27 The Architect of the
Capitol had requested $24.77 million for FY2008.28 This request, which was
submitted prior to the provision of funds in the May 2007 emergency supplemental
appropriations act, was not supported by either the House or Senate Appropriations
Committee.29
Administrative Provisions. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act
contains language establishing a statutory Office of the Inspector General for the
Architect of the Capitol. Both the House-passed and the Senate-reported bills had
included provisions establishing this position.


25 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Capitol Power Plant Utility Tunnels,
GAO-07-227R, Nov. 16, 2006, available at [http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07227r.pdf].
26 P.L. 109-234; June 15, 2006; 120 Stat. 48. The funding was included as an amendment
(S.Amdt. 3701) offered during Senate floor consideration of H.R. 4939, the emergency
supplemental appropriations bill. The amendment was agreed to in the Senate by voice vote
on April 27, 2006. The language was retained by conferees, whose report was agreed to by
the House on June 13, and the Senate on June 15, 2006.
27 P.L. 110-28; May 25, 2007; 121 Stat. 112.
28 Justification of Budget Estimates, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations,
Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008,thst
hearings, part 1, 110 Cong., 1 sess. (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 521.
29 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 30; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branchthst
Appropriations, 2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110 Cong., 1 sess., H.Rept. 110-

198 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 20.



The House-passed bill also included language designating the main hall of the
CVC “Emancipation Hall.” Separate legislation changing the name was introduced
in the Senate (S. 1679) on June 21, 2007, and in the House (H.R. 3315) on August
2, 2007. The Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and
Emergency Management of the House Committee on Transportation and
Infrastructure held a hearing on the House bill on September 25, 2007. The bill was
reported by the committee, before being considered in the House under suspension
of the rules, where it was agreed to by a vote of 398-6 on November 13, 2007.30 The
Senate passed its bill renaming the space by unanimous consent on November 15,
2007.31 H.R. 3315 passed the Senate on December 6 and became P.L. 110-139 on
December 18, 2007.32
House of Representatives
Overall Funding. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides
$1.183 billion for the internal operations of the House. The House requested $1.24
billion, an increase of 8.5% from the FY2007 level, and the House-passed bill would
have provided $1.199 billion in new budget authority.
House Committee Funding. Funding for House committees — for which
$162.4 million was provided in the Consolidated Appropriations Act — is contained
in the appropriation heading “committee employees,” which comprises two
subheadings.33 This level is $5.6 million more than the $156.8 million requested, and
$0.4 million less than $162.8 million agreed to by the House in H.R. 2771.
The first subheading contains funds for personnel and nonpersonnel expenses
of House committees, except the Appropriations Committee, as authorized by the
House in a committee expense resolution. The FY2008 request of $129.7 million, an
increase of 4.2%, included funds for investigations. The House-passed bill would
have provided $133 million in new budget authority for this subheading. The
Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $132.7 million.
The second subheading contains funds for the personnel and nonpersonnel
expenses of the Committee on Appropriations, for which $27.1 million was
requested, a 4.8% increase. The House-passed bill would have provided $29.8
million in new budget authority. The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides
$29.7 million in new budget authority.
Members’ Representational Allowance. The Members’ Representational
Allowance (MRA) is available to support Members in their official and
representational duties. It provides for personnel, official office expenses, and official


3up>10 Roll call no. 1082, pp. H13822-H13823.
31 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, Nov. 15, 2007, p. S14568.
32 P.L. 110-139, Dec. 18, 2007, 121 Stat. 1491.
33 For additional information on committee funding, see CRS Report RS22616, House
Committee Funding, 110th Congress, by R. Eric Petersen.

(franked) mail. A total of $610.6 million, an increase of 10% over the $554.7 million
provided in FY2007, was requested for the overall MRA heading. The House-passed
bill would have provided $581 million (an increase of 4.7%). The Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $579.5 million (an increase of nearly 4.5%) for the
MRA.
Senate
Overall Funding. The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $831.8
million for the Senate’s internal operations, an increase of 3.5% over the prior year
funding level. The Senate had requested $893.3 million, an increase of 11%.34
Senate Committee Funding. Appropriations for Senate committees are35
contained in two accounts:
!the inquiries and investigations account, contains funds for all
Senate committees except Appropriations. $138.6 million was
requested (a 14.9% increase). The Senate Appropriations
Committee recommended $129 million, which was subsequently
included in the Consolidated Appropriations Act (a 6.9% increase);
and
!the Committee on Appropriations account, for which $14.9 million
was requested (an increase of 7.5%) and $14.6 million was
recommended by the Senate Appropriations Committee (an increase
of 5.2%). The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $14.2
million (an increase of 2%).
Senators’ Official Personnel and Office Expense Account. The
Senators’ Official Personnel and Office Expense Account provides each Senator with
funds to administer an office. It is comprised of an administrative and clerical
assistance allowance, a legislative assistance allowance, and an official office
expense allowance. The funds may be interchanged by the Senator, subject to
limitations on official mail. A total of $396.1 million was requested for this account
(an increase of 8.4% over FY2007 funds), with $379.1 million recommended by the
Senate Appropriations Committee (an increase of 3.7%). The Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $373.6 million (an increase of 2.2%).
Support Agency Funding
Congressional Budget Office (CBO). CBO is a nonpartisan congressional
agency created to provide objective economic and budgetary analyses required by law
and by members of the House and Senate Committees on Budget and Committees


34 Figure includes the revised budget requests transmitted by the President on June 8, 2007.
35 For additional information on committee funding, see CRS Report RL33905, Senate
Committee Expenditures Resolutions, 110th Congress, and Funding Authorizations, 104th -th

110 Congresses, by R. Eric Petersen.



on Appropriations, House Committee on Ways and Means, and other committees,
and by Members of Congress.
The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $37.3 million for the
Congressional Budget Office, an increase of $2.1 million (nearly 6%) over its
FY2007 funding. CBO requested $37.97 million, an increase of $2.8 million (7.9%)
over its FY2007 funding, most of which would meet mandatory pay and related
costs. The House-passed bill contained $37.8 million, and the Senate Appropriations
Committee recommended $38.5 million.
Highlights of House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget of the
CBO. CBO Director Peter R. Orszag testified before the House legislative branch
subcommittee that personnel expenses account for approximately 91% of CBO’s
budget.36 He indicated his desire to expand CBO’s capacity in the area of health
economics. Subsequently, the House Appropriations Committee, in its report, stated
that its recommended funding would provide for one additional full-time equivalent
employee (FTE) in this area; and the Senate report stated that the committee had
“included $538,000 for CBO to expand its ability to assist the Congress in identifying37
and analyzing potential ways to address projected growth in health care spending.”
Library of Congress (LOC). The Library of Congress provides research
support for Congress through a wide range of services, from research on public
policy issues to general information. Among its major programs are acquisitions,
preservation, legal research for Congress and other federal entities, administration of
U.S. copyright laws by the Copyright Office, research and analyses of policy issues
by the Congressional Research Service, and administration of a national program to
provide reading material to the blind and physically handicapped. The Library also
maintains a number of collections and provides a range of services to libraries in the
United States and abroad.
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $562.5 million for the
Library of Congress. The House-passed bill contained $572.5 million in new budget
authority, and the Senate-reported bill proposed $576.9 million. These figures do not
include additional authority to spend receipts.38
The Library had requested (1) a net appropriation of $661.6 million, and (2)
authority to use $41.7 million in funds generated from Library receipts. Most of the
increase, $45.9 million, was requested to meet mandatory pay and price level


36 Testimony of Peter R. Orszag, Director of the Congressional Budget Office, U.S.
Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch,thst
Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, part 3, 110 Cong., 1 sess., Apr. 26,

2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p 359.


37 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 26; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branchthst
Appropriations, 2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110 Cong., 1 sess., H.Rept. 110-

198 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 16.


38 An example of receipts are fees paid to the LOC for copyright registration.

increases to maintain current services. Also included in the request was $28.1 million
in program increases. The requested funding would support a staff level of 4,244
FTEs, a net decrease of 58 FTEs from the FY2007 level of 4,302.39
FY2008 new budget authorities for the Library’s accounts are
!salaries and expenses — The Consolidated Appropriations Act
provides $388.5 million. The House-passed bill would have
provided $394.65 million, while $401.5 million was contained in
the Senate-reported bill. $461.1 million was requested. These totals
do not include authority to spend $6.35 million in receipts;
!Copyright Office — The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides
$5.3 million (not including authority to spend $44.2 million in
receipts). The House-passed bill would have provided $5.6 million
(not including authority to spend $44.2 million in receipts), while
$4.9 million was contained in the Senate-reported bill (not including
authority to spend $45.2 million in receipts). $16.2 million was
requested (not including authority to spend $35.4 million in
receipts);
!Congressional Research Service — The Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $102.3 million. The House-passed bill
would have provided $104.5 million, while $102.9 million was
contained in the Senate-reported bill. $108.7 million was requested;
and
!Books for the Blind and Physically Handicapped — The
Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $66.9 million. The
House-passed and Senate reported bills that would have provided
approximately $67.7 million. $75.6 million was requested.
The total request included $43.9 million, to be transferred to the Architect of the
Capitol, for the construction of the Library of Congress Fort Meade Logistics Center.
In FY2007, $54.2 million was requested, but not provided, for this project in the
Architect’s Library Buildings and Grounds account.
An additional $42.8 million was contained in the Architect’s FY2008 request
for Library Buildings and Grounds. The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides
$27.5 million in new budget authority for Library Buildings and Grounds. The
House-passed bill contained $31.6 million, and the Senate-reported bill
recommended $28.06 million.


39 Submitted testimony of James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, U.S. Congress, House
Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branchthst
Appropriations for 2008, hearings, part 2, 110 Cong., 1 sess., March 22, 2007
(Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 442.

Highlights of the House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget of
the LOC. The Library’s concern over the rescission of nearly $50 million in funding
in the FY2007 appropriations act was discussed at both the House and Senate
hearings. Both hearings also discussed funding for the Books for the Blind program
and efforts to update the technology that the “talking book” program currently uses.
The House subcommittee also discussed reasons for the inclusion of the funds for the
Fort Meade Logistics Center in the Library request and not that of the Architect of
the Capitol. Librarian of Congress James H. Billington expressed his desire to
prioritize this project.
Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS works exclusively for
Members and committees of Congress to support their legislative and oversight
functions by providing nonpartisan and confidential research and policy analysis.
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $102.3 million for CRS.
The agency’s request of $108.7 million represented a 7.85%, or $7.9 million, increase
over FY2007 funds, which covers only mandatory pay and related costs and price
level changes. The request did not contain funds to support program growth. The
House-passed bill contained $104.5 million in new budget authority and the Senate-
reported bill recommended $102.89 million.
Government Accountability Office (GAO). GAO works for Congress by
responding to requests for studies of federal government programs and expenditures.40
GAO may also initiate its own work. Formerly the General Accounting Office, the
agency was renamed the Government Accountability Office effective July 7, 2004.
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $499.7 million in new
budget authority for the GAO, which had requested $522.8 million (figures do not
include an additional $7.5 million from offsetting collections).41 The House-passed
bill would have provided $503.3 million in new budget authority for GAO, an
increase of 4.6% over FY2007 funding. The House Appropriations Committee, in its
report, states that this amount would provide for 3,217 FTEs, an increase of 57 FTEs
above the FY2007 levels.42 The Senate-reported bill recommended $510.3 million
in new budget authority. The Senate Appropriations Committee, in its report, stated
that this amount would allow for 3,221 FTEs and recommended “$750,000 and four
full-time equivalent employees to establish a permanent technology assessment
function in the Government Accountability Office.”43


40 GAO’s guidelines for initiating studies are contained in: U.S. Government Accountability
Office, GAO’s Congressional Protocols, GAO-04-310G (Washington: GAO, 2004). Posted
on the website of the Government Accountability Office at
[ h t t p : / / www.ga o.gov/ s peci al .pubs/ d04310g.pdf ] .
41 Offsetting collections are derived from rent income and reimbursable audit work.
42 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 110-198 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 29.
43 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,
(continued...)

Highlights of House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget of the
GAO. The issue of GAO’s possible role in providing technology assessments was
addressed during Senate hearings this year. In response to a question, Comptroller
General David M. Walker testified before the Senate that GAO could assume this
role, formerly handled by the Office of Technology Assessment, and indicated that,
in his opinion, such action would be more cost-effective than establishing a new44
agency. Chairman Obey’s statement indicated that the Consolidated Appropriations
Act includes up to $2.5 million for technology assessment studies.45
Government Printing Office (GPO). The FY2008 Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $124.7 million in new budget authority for the
Government Printing Office. GPO had requested $181.98 million, or an increase of

49% over the $122.1 million made available for FY2007.


GPO’s budget authority is contained in three accounts: (1) congressional
printing and binding, (2) Office of Superintendent of Documents (salaries and
expenses), and (3) the revolving fund. FY2008 requests for these accounts are
!congressional printing and binding — The Consolidated
Appropriations Act provides $89.8 million. Previously, the House
Appropriations Committee had recommended $87.89 million, which
was reduced by $3.2 million through an amendment adopted on the
Houses floor. The Senate Appropriations Committee recommended
$95.37. $109.5 million was requested;
!Office of Superintendent of Documents (salaries and expenses) —
The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $34.9 million. The
House-passed bill would have provided $35.4 million, while $38.2
million was included in the Senate-reported bill. $45.6 million was
requested; and
!revolving fund — The Consolidated Appropriations Act provides no
additional funding for the revolving fund. The House-passed bill
would have provided $2.45 million, while $5 million was
recommended by the Senate Appropriations Committee. $26.8
million was requested.
The congressional printing and binding account pays for expenses of printing
and binding required for congressional use, and for statutorily authorized printing,
binding, and distribution of government publications for specified recipients at no


43 (...continued)

2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 42.
44 Testimony of David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the United States, U.S. Congress,
Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislativethst
Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, 110 Cong., 1 sess., March 16, 2007
(Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 36.
45 Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007, p. H16373.

charge. Included within these publications are the Congressional Record;
Congressional Directory; Senate and House Journals; memorial addresses of
Members; nominations; U.S. Code and supplements; serial sets; publications printed
without a document or report number, for example, laws and treaties; envelopes
provided to Members of Congress for the mailing of documents; House and Senate
business and committee calendars; bills, resolutions, and amendments; committee
reports and prints; committee hearings; and other documents.
The Office of Superintendent of Documents account funds the mailing of
government documents for Members of Congress and federal agencies, as statutorily
authorized; the compilation of catalogs and indexes of government publications; and
the cataloging, indexing, and distribution of government publications to the Federal
Depository and International Exchange libraries, and to other individuals and entities,
as authorized by law.
GPO requested $26.8 million for its revolving fund to support the agency’s
acquisition of information technology infrastructure and security enhancements,
workforce retraining and restructuring efforts, and facilities maintenance and repairs.
This is an increase of $25.8 million over the $1 million provided in FY2007. Of the
requested amount, $10.5 million was proposed for the completion of the development
of GPO’s Future Digital System, while $9.4 million would cover the replacement of
a 30-year-old automated composition system.46 The House committee report stated
that the recommended level of $2.45 million would provide funds for elevator
repairs, the GPO fire alarm systems, and workforce retraining.47 The Senate
committee report stated that the recommended level of $5 million would support
“Release 2 of the ‘Future Digital System’ [FDSys].”48 The Consolidated
Appropriations Act did not provide funding for the revolving fund.
Additional Provisions. The House Committee on Appropriations, in its
report, expressed its concern about possible security lapses at the GPO facilities and
required a report on security staffing plans. Language in the Consolidated
Appropriations Act requires GPO police officers, and not contracted security
services, to be responsible for security at the D.C. passport facility.


46 Testimony of William H. Turri, Acting Public Printer of the United States, U.S. Congress,
Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislativethst
Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, 110 Cong., 1 sess., March 16, 2007
(Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 22.
47 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 110-198 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 29.
48 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany S. 1686, 110th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 110-89 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 42.

Highlights of House and Senate Hearings on FY2008 Budget of the
GPO. Acting Public Printer William H. Turri, in his written testimony, discussed49
recent efforts to transform GPO’s operations for the digital age.
Other Funding
Office of Compliance. The Office of Compliance is an independent and
nonpartisan agency within the legislative branch. It was established to administer
and enforce the Congressional Accountability Act, which was enacted in 1995.50 The
act applies business and federal government employment and workplace safety laws
to Congress and certain legislative branch entities.51
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $3.3 million for the
Office of Compliance, an increase of 6.5% over the $3.1 million made available in
FY2007. The act also contained language authorizing an increase in the
compensation for members of the board of directors and officers of the Office of
Compliance. The House-passed bill (H.R. 2771) would have provided $3.8 million,
an increase of nearly 23%. The Senate-reported bill (S. 1686) also recommended $3.8
million in new budget authority.
The Office of Compliance had requested $4.1 million. In her prepared
testimony, Tamara E. Chrisler, the acting executive director, stated that $280,000 of
the requested increase was related to the office’s required monitoring of asbestos52
abatement in the Capitol Power Plant utility tunnels.
The House bill contained a provision requiring legislative agencies to reimburse
the Treasury, from existing funds, for the payment of an award or settlement under


49 Bruce James retired as Public Printer in January 2007. On May 24, 2007, the President
nominated Robert C. Tapella to be Public Printer. The nomination, which requires Senate
confirmation, was referred to the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, which
reported it favorably on September 26, 2007. The confirmation was approved by the Senate
on October 4, 2007.
50 P.L. 104-1, Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 3. The act, as amended, applies twelve civil rights,
labor, and workplace safety laws to Congress and certain legislative branch agencies. These
laws include Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Title
VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Fair Labor
Standards Act, Family and Medical Leave Act, Federal Services Labor-Management
Relations Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Rehabilitation Act of 1970,
Veterans’ employment and reemployment rights at Chapter 43 of Title 38 of the U.S. Code,
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act, and Veterans Employment Opportunities Act.
51 Among the Office’s activities are administration of a dispute resolution process,
investigation and enforcement of occupational safety and health and disability provisions
of the act, investigation of labor relations and enforcement of applicable provisions, and
development of educational programs regarding the act’s provisions.
52 Testimony of Tamara E. Chrisler, Acting Executive Director of the Office of Compliance,
U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislativethst
Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, part 3, 110 Cong., 1 sess.,
Apr. 26, 2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 379.

the Congressional Accountability Act. Since the passage of the act in 1995, “only
funds which are appropriated to an account of the Office in the Treasury of the
United States for the payment of awards and settlements may be used for the payment
of awards and settlements.”53 In response to a question for the record posed during
the House Appropriations Committee hearing on the budget request of the Office of
Compliance, the Office provided a list of amounts paid on behalf of each legislative
branch agency from this account since FY1997, and indicated that the total equals
slightly less than $7.5 million.54 In its report, the House Appropriations Committee
stated its belief that the administrative provision would “enhance accountability,
encourage issues to be solved at a lower level, encourage work place fairness, and
require periodic training of managers regarding their responsibility under the
Congressional Accountability Act.”55 The Senate-reported bill did not contain this
provision.
The Senate-reported bill included language that would have permitted an
employee of the Office of Compliance to be appointed to the positions of Executive
Director or General Counsel and would have authorized an increase in the statutory
pay cap for these positions. Under the law creating the office, these positions can not
be held by most individuals who have held positions within the legislative branch
during the previous four years.56 The original language would have precluded certain
promotions from within the office, for example, from deputy executive director to
executive director. In a statement, the office’s Board of Directors indicated that
“since the Board could be actively contemplating such a promotion, we have an
immediate interest in changing the prohibitive section of the CAA.”57 Support of the
Board for language permitting internal promotions was voiced at the Senate budget
request hearing on March 16, 2007, by Barbara Camens, who represented the
Board.58 Separate legislation permitting individuals who have served as employees
of the Office of Compliance to serve in appointed positions in the office was
introduced in the House on September 18, 2007. The House agreed to that bill, H.R.
3571, by voice vote on October 2, 2007. It passed the Senate without amendment on
December 19 and became P.L. 110-164 on December 26, 2007.
Open World Leadership Center. The center administers a program that
supports democratic changes in other countries by giving their leaders opportunity


53 Congressional Accountability Act,P.L. 104-1, Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 38; 2 U.S.C. 1415.
54 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative
Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, part 3, 110th Cong., 1st sess.
(Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 400.
55 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Legislative Branch Appropriations,

2008, report to accompany H.R. 2771, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 110-198 (Washington:


GPO, 2007), p. 16.
56 P.L. 104-1, 109 Stat. 26, Jan. 23, 1995; 2 U.S.C. 1381(d)(2) and 1382.
57 Statement of Board of Directors, Office of Compliance [March 16, 2007].
58 Testimony of Barbara L. Camens, Member, Board of Directors of the Office of
Compliance, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on thethst
Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2008, hearings, 110 Cong., 1
sess., March 16, 2007 (Washington: GPO, 2007), p. 45.

to observe democracy and free enterprise in the United States. The first program was
authorized by Congress in 1999 to support the relationship between Russia and the
United States. The program encouraged young federal and local Russian leaders to
visit the United States and observe its government and society.
Established at the Library of Congress as the Center for Russian Leadership
Development in 2000, the center was renamed the Open World Leadership Center
in 2003, when the program was expanded to include specified additional countries.59
In 2004, Congress further extended the program’s eligibility to other countries
designated by the center’s board of trustees, subject to congressional consideration.60
The center is housed in the Library and receives services from the Library through
an inter-agency agreement.
Following discussion at both the subcommittee and full committee levels
regarding the funding and location of this program, the House Appropriations
Committee recommended $6 million for Open World. The committee report stated
that an additional $6 million would be provided for transfer to the program in the
FY2008 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriation. The House-
passed bill, which retained the committee-recommended funding level, also
contained an administrative provision transferring the Open World Leadership Center
to the Department of State effective October 1, 2008.
The Senate-reported bill had provided $13.5 million in new budget authority for
Open World.
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $8.98 million for Open
World. The act also requires the center to examine options for transfer to the
executive branch and report its findings to the House and Senate Committees on
Appropriations not later than March 31, 2008.
Open World had requested $14.4 million for FY2008. The request was equal to
the amount requested in FY2007 and would have represented an increase of 3.9%
from the $13.86 million provided in FY2007 and FY2006.
John B. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and
Development. The center was created by Congress in 1988 to encourage public
service by congressional staff through training and development programs. The
FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act provides $429,000 for the center. The
House-passed bill and the Senate-reported bill both had provided $430,000 for the
center, which is equal to the FY2008 request and the same as provided in FY2007.


59 P.L. 106-554, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-120; P.L. 108-7, Feb. 20, 2003, 117
Stat. 382. According to the 2003 act, the additional countries included “any country
specified in section 3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)” and “Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania.”
60 P.L. 108-447, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3192.

CRS-22
Table 3. Legislative Branch Appropriations, FY2008
(in thousands of dollars)
FY2008 FY2008 FY2008
EntityFY2007 EnactedaFY2008 Request jHouse-Passed Bill Senate-Reported BillEnacted
(H.R. 2771)(S. 1686)
itle 1: Legislative Branch Appropriations
enate803,514893,335jd842,031831,781
ouse of Representatives1,144,486a1,235,0421,198,560 g1,182,835
nt Items24,15527,540jk21,112k25,778k22,977
iki/CRS-RL34031itol Policeb265,635a299,070286,000284,000280,996
g/w
s.orffice of Compliance3,1034,1063,8063,8063,342
leakongressional Budget Office35,20437,97237,80538,51037,306
://wikirchitect of the Capitol 449,917a481,709 348,380e 352,534h 414,347
httpibrary of Congress, Including CRS 508,760a661,616572,512576,949562,488
ongressional Research Service, Lib. of Cong.(100,786)(108,702)(104,518)(102,892)102,344
overnment Printing Office 122,050181,979122,576l138,596124,688
ernment Accountability Office481,070a522,804j503,328510,320499,748
World Leadership Centerc13,86014,4006,00013,5008,978
tennis Center for Public Service430430430430429
le II: General Provisions 00000
otal Legislative Branch (Titles I and II)3,852,1844,360,0033,100,509f 2,786,454i3,969,915



CRS-23
House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. Budget, H.Rept. 110-198, S.Rept. 110-89, P.L. 110-161, and the statement of Chairman David Obey in the Congressional Record
edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007, pp. H16371-H16380).
Y2007 funds are contained in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 and P.L. 110-28, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans Care, Katrina Recovery,
and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007. Library of Congress total includes the $49.55 million rescission included in P.L.110-5.
his account was effective with the FY2003 Legislative Branch Appropriation Act. Previously, Capitol Police funds were contained under the joint items account.
he center was named the Russian Leadership Program prior to FY2004. Appropriations represent payments to the center’s trust fund.
he House does not consider appropriations for internal Senate operations.
he House does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings contained in the budget of the Architect of the Capitol.
his figure will not contain funds for internal Senate operations, which are funded in a separate account, or for Senate office buildings, which are contained in the budget of the
Architect of the Capitol. The Senate determines funding levels of these two accounts.
he Senate does not consider appropriations for internal House operations.
his figure will not contain funds for internal House operations, which are funded in a separate account, or for House office buildings, which are contained in the budget of the
iki/CRS-RL34031Architect of the Capitol. The House determines funding levels of these two accounts.
g/whis figure will not contain funds for internal House operations, which are funded in a separate account, or for House office buildings, which are contained in the budget of the
s.orArchitect of the Capitol. The House determines funding levels of these two accounts.
leakdget requests include revised figures contained in the Presidents letter of June 8, 2007.
he Senate has considered a request for and proposed $1.25 million in budget authority for the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, while the House-passed
://wikibill has not specifically designated funding for this purpose in its bill.
httphe House Appropriations Committee had recommended $125.776 million for the Government Printing Office (GPO). A vote on the House floor reduced the budget authority for
the Congressional Printing and Binding component of GPOs overall budget authority, and H.R. 2771, as referred to the Senate, states that the appropriation for Congressional
Printing and Binding is$87,892,000 (reduced by $3,200,000).”



Table 4. Capitol Police Appropriations, FY2008
(in thousands of dollars)
FY2008 FY2008 FY2008
AccountsFY2007 EnactedaFY2008RequestedbHouse Passed Bill Senate Reported BillEnacted
(H.R. 2771)(S. 1686)
Salaries, Capitol Police217,135 224,500225,930232,218
General Expenses38,500 61,50058,07048,778
Emergency Appropriations10,000
Total, Capitol Police265,635299,070286,000284,000280,996
Source: House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. Budget, H.Rept. 110-198, S.Rept. 110-89, P.L. 110-161,
and the statement of Chairman David Obey in the Congressional Record (daily edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007,
pp. H16371-H16380).
a. FY2007 funds are contained in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 and P.L.
110-28, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans’ Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability
Appropriations Act, 2007.
b. The FY2008 request did not contain separate funding for salaries and general expenses.
Table 5. Architect of the Capitol Appropriations, FY2008
(in thousands of dollars)
FY2008 FY2008
AccountsFY2007 EnactedaFY2008RequesteddHouse-PassedBill Senate-Reported BillFY2008 Enacted
(H.R. 2771)(S. 1686)
Architect of the Capitol
General administration 77,12887,71481,73381,58479,697
Capitol building 23,88629,48024,56725,24724,030
Capitol Grounds7,57710,2259,3109,91510,065
Senate office buildings67,20287,248 b71,04870,107
House office buildings59,89650,62166,151 c65,471
Capitol power plant
P.L. 110-5123,313
Emergency(73,313)
Appropriatio ns (50,000) 111,226 83,017 83,447 85,097
Library buildings and
ground s 27,692 42,788 31,638 28,061 27,484
Capitol Police buildings
and grounds 11,76818,81616,10915,11614,929
Botanic garden7,6979,7078,3109,3638,786
Capitol Visitor Center43,75833,88427,54528,753
Project - Cost to
comp lete (20,000) (20,000) 20,202
Operations(13,884)(7,545)8,479
Total, Architect of thebc
Capitol 449,917481,709 348,380 352,534414,347
Source: House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. Budget, H.Rept. 110-198, S.Rept. 110-89, P.L. 110-161,
and the statement of Chairman David Obey in the Congressional Record (daily edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007,
pp. H16371-H16380).
a. FY2007 funds are contained in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 and P.L.
110-28, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans’ Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability
Appropriations Act, 2007.
b. The House does not consider appropriations for Senate office buildings.
c. The Senate does not consider appropriations for House office buildings.
d. Budget requests include revised figures contained in the President’s letter of June 8, 2007.



CRS-25
Table 6. Senate Appropriations, FY2008
(in thousands of dollars)
FY2008 Senate-FY2008
AccountsaFY2007 EnacteddFY2008 RequesteFY2008 House(H.R. 2771)Reported BillEnacted
(S. 1686)
ents — Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress001650f
xpense Allowances and Representation225225 225225
alaries, Officers, and Employees148,512166,651160,296158,457
ce of Legislative Counsel5,4916,280 6,2806,280
ce of Legal Counsel1,3171,439 1,4391,439
iki/CRS-RL34031xpense Allowances for Secretary of Senate, et al.24242424
g/wontingent Expenses (subtotal)647,945718,716 673,602665,356
s.orInquiries and Investigations120,692138,644 129,000129,000
leakSenate Intl. Narcotics Caucus520520 520520
b1,9802,000 2,0002,000
://wikiSecretary of the Senatec
httpSergeant at Arms/Doorkeeper142,000162,450 145,189142,389
Miscellaneous Items17,00018,737 17,52817,528
Senators Official Personnel and Office
Expense Account365,453396,065 379,065373,619
Official Mail Costs300300 300300
otal, Senate803,514893,335 842,031831,781
rce: House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. Budget, revised FY2008 requests, S.Rept. 110-89, P.L. 110-161, and the statement of Chairman David Obey in the Congressional Record
edition, vol. 153, Dec. 17, 2007, pp. H16371-H16380).
e Senate account contains seven appropriations headings, which are highlighted in bold.
ffice operations of the Office of the Secretary of the Senate are also funded underSalaries, Officers, and Employees.”
ffice operations of the Office of Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper are also funded underSalaries, Officers, and Employees.
2007 funds are contained in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007.
udget requests include revised figures contained in the President’s letter of June 8, 2007.
ratuity payment was included in the first FY2008 Continuing Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-92, which was enacted on Sept. 29, 2007.



CRS-26
Table 7. House of Representatives Appropriations, FY2008
(in thousands of dollars)
FY2008FY2008FY2008
AccountsaFY2007EnactedbFY2008RequestHouse-Passed Bill SenateEnacted
(H.R. 2771)(S. 1686)
ents — Heirs of Deceased Members of Congress330000e
aries and Expenses, Total1,144,4861,235,0421,198,560 1,182,835
House Leadership Offices22,82223,64823,64823,987
Members’ Representational Allowancesc554,716610,616581,000579,548
Committee Employees (subtotal)d150,272156,775162,800 162,387
iki/CRS-RL34031Standing Committees, Special and Select, except
g/wAppropriations124,406129,662133,000 132,668
s.or
leakAppropriations Committee25,86627,11329,80029,719
Salaries, Officers, and Employees (subtotal)156,147174,382169,393166,367
://wikiOffice of the Clerk21,67622,88122,881 22,367
httpOffice of the Sergeant at Arms6,2957,0247,024 6,866
Office of Chief Administrative Officer106,064120,612116,891 114,267
Office of Inspector General4,0164,4574,457 4,357
Office for Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and4,0104,2423,111 3,041
Operations
Office of General Counsel9681,2021,202 1,175
Office of the Chaplain163166166 166
Office of the Parliamentarian1,7781,8281,828 1,794
Office of the Law Revision Counsel 2,4723,0463,046 2,932
Office of the Legislative Counsel7,0257,4067,406 7,240
Office of Interparliamentary Affairs724752752 700
Other Authorized Employees: Technical Assistants, Office548170170 1,013


of Attending Physician

CRS-27
FY2008FY2008FY2008
AccountsaFY2007EnactedbFY2008RequestHouse-Passed Bill SenateEnacted
(H.R. 2771)(S. 1686)
Office of Historian408596459 449
Allowances and Expenses (subtotal)260,199269,621261,719250,546
Supplies, Materials, Administrative Costs and Federal Tort4,7043,6883,688 3,579
Cla i ms
Official Mail for committees, leadership, administrative410410410 309
and legislative offices
Government Contributions226,904239,447237,410 226,887
iki/CRS-RL34031Capitol Visitor Center3,4102,3082,308 2,256
g/wBusiness Continuity and Disaster Recovery17,631
s.or Emergency Appropriations6,43723,06517,200 16,814
leakMiscellaneous Items703703703 701
://wikise of Representatives, Total1,144,4861,235,0421,198,560 1,182,835
http
rces: House Committee on Appropriations, the U.S. Budget, H.Rept. 110-198, P.L. 110-161, and the statement of Chairman David Obey in the Congressional Record (daily edition, vol. 153, Dec.
16371-H16380)
e appropriations bill contains two House accounts: (1) payments to widows and heirs of deceased Members of Congress and (2) salaries and expenses.
2007 funds are contained in P.L. 110-5, the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 and P.L. 110-28, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq
Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007.
is appropriation heading was new in the FY1996 bill. The heading represents a consolidation of: (1) the former heading Members’ clerk hire; (2) the former heading official mail costs; and (3) the
former subheading official expenses of Members, under the heading allowances and expenses.
his appropriation heading was new in the FY1996 bill. The heading represents a consolidation of: (1) the former heading committee employees; (2) the former heading standing committees, special
and select; (3) the former heading Committee on Budget (studies); and (4) the former heading Committee on Appropriations (studies and investigations).
gratuity payment was included in the first FY2008 Continuing Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-92, which was enacted on Sept. 29, 2007. An additional gratuity payment was included in the Second
Continuing Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-116 and in the Fourth Continuing Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-149.



For Additional Reading
CRS Report
CRS Report RL33379, Legislative Branch: FY2007 Appropriations, by Paul E.
Dwyer and Ida A. Brudnick.
CRS Report RL32819, Legislative Branch: FY2006 Appropriations, by Paul Dwyer.
Selected Websites
These sites contain information on the FY2007 and FY2008 legislative branch
appropriations requests and legislation, and the appropriations process.
House Committee on Appropriations
[ http://appropriations.house.gov/]
Senate Committee on Appropriations
[http://appropriations.senat e.gov/]
CRS Appropriations Products Guide
[ http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/apppage.shtml]
Congressional Budget Office
[ http://www.cbo.gov]
Government Accountability Office
[ http://www.gao.gov]
Office of Management & Budget
[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/]