FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for International Affairs
FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
for International Affairs
Updated April 22, 2008
Susan B. Epstein, Rhoda Margesson, and Curt Tarnoff
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for
Congress approved an FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764)
during the week of December 17, 2007, that included some emergency supplemental
funding for international affairs requested by the White House. The President signed
the spending measure on December 26 (P.L. 110-161). The White House had
submitted emergency supplemental requests to Congress for military operations in
Iraq and Afghanistan, and international affairs programs totaling $196.5 billion. The
request was made in two installments — an estimate of additional expenses was sent
to Congress with the FY2008 regular budget request in February 2007, and a second
amended request was made on October 22, 2007. Of the total, $6.897 billion
consisted of international affairs spending, relating to State Department operations
and foreign assistance programs, and included $350 million in Agriculture
Department food aid appropriations. This report analyzes the international affairs
portion of the request and tracks related legislative activity.
On February 6, 2007, the Administration sent to Congress its regular FY2008
budget that included $35.1 billion for international affairs. At the same time, the
President sent Congress a separate FY2008 emergency supplemental request of
$3.301 billion for international affairs. On October 22, 2007, the Administration
amended its supplemental request with $3.596 billion in additional spending. While
the largest portion of the total request was for State Department operations and
foreign assistance in Iraq and Afghanistan, it also included sizeable requests for
programs in Mexico, the West Bank and Gaza, North Korea, Sudan, and Pakistan.
The Bush Administration has increasingly requested supplemental funds for
international affairs budgets. Some budget experts and others have criticized the
Administration for relying too heavily on supplementals, saying that many items have
become routine, particularly relating to Iraq and Afghanistan, and should be
incorporated into the regular appropriations cycle. The Administration counters that
given the nature of rapidly changing overseas events and unforeseen emergencies, it
is necessary to make supplemental requests for what it asserts are unexpected and
Some congressional leaders have said that an additional supplemental bill may
be considered later in 2008. In the meantime, nearly $2.4 billion in international
affairs funding requested in the supplemental was included in an omnibus FY2008
appropriations bill. H.R. 2764, the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs
Appropriation bill, was the vehicle used to accommodate 11 outstanding
appropriations measures for both regular FY2008 and supplemental funding. The
omnibus also included supplemental funding for military operations. For further
information, see CRS Report RL34278 FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for
Global War on Terror Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other
This report will not be updated.
International Affairs Emergency Supplemental Request....................2
State Department Operations.....................................3
Congressional Action on State Department Operations............4
Congressional Action on Foreign Operations....................5
Iraq Reconstruction Assistance...................................8
Administration Supplemental Request for Iraq Reconstruction......8
Congressional Action on Iraq Reconstruction in FY2008
Pending FY2008 Supplemental..............................10
The FY2008 original and amended emergency supplemental
The FY2008 original and amended supplemental request..........15
FY2008 additional emergency supplemental request.............15
Mexico and Central America....................................16
West Bank and Gaza..........................................16
Other Humanitarian Assistance..................................17
Appendix A. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Request, State Department
and Foreign Operations........................................19
List of Tables
Table 1. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental State Department...............4
Table 2. FY2008 Foreign Operations Emergency Supplemental.............7
Table 3. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq
Table 4. Afghanistan Reconstruction Assistance, FY2008.................14
Table 5. Sudan Emergency Supplemental, FY2008......................16
FY2008 Emergency Supplemental
Appropriations for International Affairs
In February 2008, when the Administration sent its FY2009 budget request to
Congress, the Department of State also provided its estimates of the FY2008
emergency supplemental funds, by account. Some funds differ from that in the
legislation because the department allocated some supplementals into the regular
base funding when less than requested in the regular budget was received. The State
Department’s estimates of pending FY2008 supplemental funds are also related to
instances where Congress directed certain uses for the supplementals that were not
part of the State Department’s supplemental request.
On December 26, 2007, the President signed into law the FY2008 Consolidated
Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764/P.L. 110-161; hereafter referred to as the “Act”)
providing funding for most government operations for which regular FY2008
appropriations bills — 11 in all — had not been enacted. The measure also included
$2.385 billion in emergency international affairs spending in addition to emergency
funds for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
H.R. 2764, the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Act for
FY2008, was the vehicle used for the omnibus bill because it had been previously
approved by both the House and Senate. The House passed the amended version on
December 17, 2007. The Senate took up the House-passed bill the following day and
added an additional $40 billion in emergency military spending for operations in Iraq
and Afghanistan in addition to the $31 billion provided by the House that was
restricted to operations in Afghanistan. The House then approved the final version
on December 19. International affairs programs comprise Division J of the omnibus
bill and include both regular and supplemental appropriations. In order to meet
budget targets, appropriations in Division J are subject to a 0.81 across-the-board cut.
The reduction does not affect emergency supplemental funds.
Supplemental funds for international affairs in the Act total $2.385 billion for
both State Department operations ($1.262 billion) and Foreign Operations ($1.123
billion). The Act also provides supplemental military funding for operations in
Afghanistan and Iraq. For more information on all the provisions of the Act, see
CRS Report RL34278 FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Global War on
Terror Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes.
Supplemental funds for State Department accounts include:
!$781.6 million for Diplomatic and Consular Programs — $575.0
million for operations and $206.6 million for worldwide security
!$468.0 million for Contributions to International Peacekeeping for
activities in Darfur; and
!$12.0 million for International Broadcasting.
Supplemental funds for Foreign Operations accounts include:
!$115 million for Global Health & Child Survival;
!$110 million for International Disaster Assistance;
!$20.8 million for USAID Operating Expenses for Iraq;
!$542.6 million for Economic Support Fund;
!$200 million for Migration and Refugee Assistance;
!$100 million for Foreign Military Financing; and
!$35 million for Peacekeeping Operations.
Approximately $4.5 billion of the President’s emergency request remains
outstanding. (Note that the Department of State estimates that $5.4 billion of the
President’s emergency request remains outstanding because of using supplemental
funds to fill unmet needs in the regular FY2008 appropriation and because some
supplemental funds were directed by Congress for certain uses not requested by the
Administration.) Congressional leaders have stated that an additional supplemental
measure could be considered in the spring of 2008. Remaining items include
additional sums for foreign aid activities in Iraq and Afghanistan, and a major new
counter-narcotics initiative in Mexico and Central America. For State Department
operations, outstanding items include additional funds for Diplomatic and Consular
Programs security upgrades, and Contributions to International Peacekeeping
International Affairs Emergency
On February 6, 2007, the Administration sent to Congress its regular FY2008
budget that included $35.1 billion for international affairs. At the same time, the
President sent Congress an FY2008 emergency supplemental request of $3.301
billion for international affairs. On October 22, 2007, the Administration amended
its supplemental request with $3.596 billion in additional spending. The total
FY2008 emergency supplemental request for international affairs spending amounts
to $6.897 billion. While the largest portion of the total request is for State
Department operations and foreign assistance in Iraq and Afghanistan, it also
includes sizeable requests for programs in Mexico, the West Bank and Gaza, North
Korea, Sudan, and Pakistan.
The State Department estimated emergency supplemental funding needs of
$3.220 billion for Diplomatic and Consular Programs (DCP) in Iraq and Afghanistan,
Worldwide Security Upgrades in Afghanistan, staff housing in Afghanistan,
Contributions to International Organizations, and Contributions to International
Peacekeeping Activities (CIPA) for Darfur. Two-thirds ($2.1 billion) of the State
Department request was for Diplomatic and Consular Program funding for Iraq
Operations. Foreign Operations comprise $3.678 billion, including $350 million for
P.L. 480 food assistance. Nearly half of the total foreign operations package was
allocated for assistance in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The Bush Administration has increasingly requested emergency supplemental
funds for international affairs budgets. Some budget experts and others have
criticized the Administration for relying too heavily on supplementals, and that some
items, particularly relating to Iraq and Afghanistan, have become routine and should
be incorporated into the regular appropriations cycle. The Administration counters
that given the nature of rapidly changing overseas events and unforeseen
emergencies, it is necessary to make emergency supplemental requests for what it
claims are unexpected and non-recurring expenses.
State Department Operations1
In February 2007, the original FY2008 State Department portion of the
emergency supplemental request consisted of $1.882 billion for Diplomatic and
Consular Programs, all for operations in Iraq, and $53 million for Contributions to
International Organizations (CIO). The Administration amended this supplemental,
adding nearly $1.3 billion: $401.4 million for Diplomatic and Consular Programs
(DCP), $160 million for Embassy Security, Construction, and Maintenance (ESCM),
and $723.6 million for Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities
(CIPA). Total emergency funds requested for FY2008 for the State Department’s
Administration of Foreign Affairs equal $3.220 billion in addition to the regular
budget request of $7.317 billion for the Administration of Foreign Affairs (Table 1).
The Mission in Iraq consists of about 1,000 direct-hire Americans representing2
the Department requested a total of $2.283 billion, of which $2.120.6 billion was for
emergency needs in Iraq. In addition, $402.6 million of carryover funds were
available, for a total of $2.523 billion for Iraq operations. Of this sum, $978.7
million would pay for security needs, such as local guards ($151.6 million),
compound guards ($164.0 million), regional security ($167.3 million), personal
security details ($301.4 million), armored vehicles ($41.2 million), physical and
technical security, such as vehicle barriers and bomb detective dogs ($8.7 million),
equipment, such as bullet proof vests, ammunition, and masks ($6.4 million), other
support, such as special agents traveling to Iraq and counterterrorism training ($28.1
million), and overhead cover protection to bolster rooftops ($110.0 million). Another
$907.1 million would go toward Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), paying
salaries ($187.6 million), operations ($63.8 million), living accommodations and
medical support ($72.1 million), information technology ($60.3 million), vehicles
1 Prepared by Susan B. Epstein, Specialist in Foreign Policy.
2 For more information, see CRS Report RS21867, U.S. Embassy in Iraq, by Susan B.
($3.3 million), security ($516.8 million) and leases of space in Baghdad ($3.2
The Administration also sought $162.4 million for worldwide security upgrades
in Afghanistan. Of this amount, $80 million would pay for securing facilities,
including overhead (roof) protection; $38 million would be for high threat protection
teams and support for the election process; $36.5 million would fund unbudgeted
security costs for other agencies; and $7.9 million would buy fully armored vehicles
for the embassy and PRTs. Other expenses covered by the FY2008 emergency
supplemental request for the Department of State included $160 million for U.S. staff
housing in Afghanistan under the Embassy Security, Construction, and Maintenance
account, $53 million for U.S. assessments for U.N. activities related to combat
terrorism, and $723.6 million for U.S. Contributions for International Peacekeeping
activities in Darfur.
Table 1. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental State Department
(millions of U.S. dollars)
RequestSupp.H.R. 2764FY08 SuppaFY08 Supp
Activ ity FY2008 Request PL110-161 Allo ca t io n Request
Total State Operations7,317.1b3,219.61,261.6965.02,254.6
Diplomatic & Consular4,942.72,283.0781.6575.01,708.0
Programs Iraq Operations — (2,120.6)(575.0)(575.0)(1,545.6)
P r o tectio n
Construction & Maintenance1,599.4160.0 — 0.0160.0
International Organizations1,354.453.0 — 0.053.0
Broadcasting668.2 — 12.012.0 —
To tal 9 ,003.5 3 ,219.6 1 ,261.6 977.0 2 ,254.6
a. These numbers differ from those in P.L. 110-161 because the Department of State applied some of
the supplemental funding to FY2008 base funds or because, in some cases, Congress provided
supplementals for activities not requested by the Administration.
b. Includes other funds not listed in this table.
c. Includes worldwide security upgrade funds for embassies.
Congressional Action on State Department Operations. Congress
provided both regular funding and supplemental funding for the Department of State
and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) in Division J of the Consolidated
Appropriation Act (P.L. 110-161). The enacted law contains $1.262 billion in
supplemental funds for the Department of State — $781.6 million for State’s
Diplomatic and Consular Programs (D&CP) and $468.0 million for U.S.
Contributions to International Peacekeeping (CIPA). In both accounts, the
emergency supplemental amounts are significantly less than what the Administration
had requested. Of the $781.6 million for D&CP, $575.0 million is specified for Iraq
operations and $206.6 million is for worldwide security protection (WSP).
According to State Department officials, the Department applied the $206 million to
the FY2008 base request, resulting in $162.4 million to be still pending for WSP in
Afghanistan. The appropriation does not require any specific allocation for the
CIPA emergency supplemental funds, although the measure states that “not less than
$550.4 million be used to establish a new United Nations/African Union hybrid
peacekeeping mission to Darfur (UNAMID).” According to Department of State
officials, $390 million is allocated for Darfur and $78 million for FY2008 U.N.
Peacekeeping funds. Still pending is $333.6 million for Darfur, according to
Emergency supplemental funds for the BBG total $12.0 million in the
consolidated appropriation. No funds for international broadcasting were requested
in the Administration’s emergency supplemental request. While the provision lists
general funding allocations for BBG, no requirements for specific allocation of the
supplemental funds is mentioned.
The Foreign Operations portion, totaling $3.678 billion, of the supplemental
request was sent to Congress in two tranches. A $1.367 billion request accompanied
the President’s budget on February 6, 2007. An amended request for $2.311 billion,
including P.L. 480 food aid, was sent to Congress on October 22nd. Approximately
one-third of the request was made up of $2.217 billion in Economic Support Funds
(ESF) for Iraq ($797 million), Afghanistan ($834 million), West Bank and Gaza
($350 million), North Korea ($106 million), Sudan ($70 million) and Pakistan ($60
million). (See Table 2 for full request.)
Anti-narcotics emergency supplemental funding for FY2008 totaled a requested
$734 million, the largest portion allocated for Mexico and Central America ($550
million). Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) totaled $230 million, mainly for
Iraqi and Palestinian refugees. International Disaster and Famine Assistance (IDFA),
totaling $80 million, would fund programs in Iraq to assist internally displaced
persons (IDPs). The request also includes $5 million for the Afghanistan Presidential
Protection Service from the Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related
Programs (NADR) account. A $350 million request for P.L. 480 food aid would
support programs in the Horn of Africa, Kenya, Sudan, and a $30 million
contingency fund to anticipate future needs elsewhere.
Congressional Action on Foreign Operations. Congress approved
$1.123 billion in emergency supplemental funds for foreign operations in the
omnibus bill in addition to regular FY2008 funding. In many instances, the amounts
approved for emergency funds are less than that requested, making it difficult to
ascertain what parts of the request will be funded. For example, the White House
3 Prepared by Connie Veillette, Specialist in Foreign Assistance.
had requested approximately $2.2 billion in ESF funds for six recipients, but the
legislation is not explicit, in every instance, as to where these funds should be
directed, presumably leaving some discretion to the Administration. Supplemental
funds approved by Congress include
!$115 million for Global Health & Child Survival (no CSH funds
!$110 million for International Disaster Assistance ($80 million had
been requested for activities in Iraq);
!$20.8 million for USAID Operating Expenses ($61.8 million was
requested for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan);
!$542.6 million for Economic Support Fund ($2.2 billion had been
requested for Iraq Afghanistan, the West Bank and Gaza, Pakistan,
North Korea, and Sudan);
!$200 million for Migration and Refugee Assistance for Iraqi
refugees and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, and the West Bank
and Gaza ($230 million was requested);
!$100 million for Foreign Military Financing (no FMF funds were
!$35 million for Peacekeeping Operations (no PKO funds were
No supplemental funds were provided for counter-narcotics programs requested
for Mexico and Central America, and the West Bank and Gaza.
Table 2. FY2008 Foreign Operations Emergency Supplemental
(millions of U.S. dollars)
FY2008Total Supp Pending
RegularSupp.HR2764 FY08 SuppFY08 Supp
Co unt ry /Acco unt Request Request PL110-161 Allo ca t io n R e que s t
Afghanistan1,067.1a839.0na — 839.0
USAID Operating Expenses — (16.0)
Iraq391.8a956.0na — 956.0
Mexico — Central America 220.4a550.00.0 — 550.0
Init ia t i v e
West Bank/Gaza77.0a375.0na 155.0220.0
Pakistan785.0a60.0 na — 60.0
North Korea2.0106.0na 53.053.0
Sudan679.2a70.0 na — 70.0
Horn of Africa/Kenya — (110.0) — (110.0)
Southern Africa — (135.0) — (135.0)
PL480 — (135.0)0.0
M igratio n/refug ee 773.5 230.0 200.0 200.0 30.0
Intern’l Disaster Assist.297.380.080.080.0 —
PL4801,219.4350.00.0 — 350.0
USAID Operating Expenses609.061.8na20.841.0
To tal 6 ,121.7 3 ,677.8 1 ,123.4 508.8 3 ,169.0
Notes: Figures do not include State Department Operations. Acronyms: ESF-Economic Support
Fund; INCLE-International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement; IDFA-International Disaster and
Famine Assistance; MRA-Migration and Refugee Assistance; NADR-Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism,
Demining, and Related Programs; and PL480-Food for Peace; USAID-U.S. Agency for International
a. Country totals include other accounts for which supplemental funds were not requested.
b. Some supplemental funds were not designated in the Joint Explanatory Statement accompanying
H.R. 2764 with regard to destination, and are marked as “na.”
Iraq Reconstruction Assistance4
Until the passage of the omnibus FY2008 appropriations bill, nearly $42 billion
in U.S. funds had been appropriated to support all facets of Iraq reconstruction.
Almost all this funding was appropriated in annual supplemental legislation. For
FY2008, the Administration made no request for security assistance in its regular
Defense budget proposal, but asked for roughly $392 million under State and Foreign
Operations appropriations. In both the June 2007-approved House and September
2007-approved Senate versions of the FY2008 State and Foreign Operations
legislation (H.R. 2764), Congress rejected the Administration request for Iraq.
Therefore, funding for Iraq reconstruction in FY2008 was expected to come almost
entirely from an emergency supplemental measure.
Administration Supplemental Request for Iraq Reconstruction. The
Administration’s FY2008 emergency supplemental appropriations request, revised
on October 22, 2007, included $4.9 billion in funding for Iraq reconstruction.
Reconstruction aid has two main components — security aid funded with
Department of Defense (DOD) appropriations and political/economic/social sector
assistance funded with State and Foreign Operations appropriations.
The request for DOD reconstruction appropriations totaled about $3.7 billion.
It would chiefly fund the training and equipping of Iraqi troops under the Iraq
Security Forces Fund (ISFF) and reconstruction grants provided under the
Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP). The CERP allows military
commanders to support a wide variety of economic activities at the local level, from
renovating health clinics to digging wells to painting schools, provided in the form
of small grants. CERP also funds some infrastructure efforts no longer supported
with other U.S. assistance, such as repair or provision of electric generators and
construction of sewer systems. Commanders are able to identify needs and dispense
aid with few bureaucratic encumbrances. More recently, the CERP has paid salaries
to the so-called Sons of Iraq (formerly known as the Concerned Local Citizens),
mostly Sunnis who are joining with U.S. forces to provide security.
The October budget revision added a $100 million request to the DOD-funded
Iraq Freedom Fund account for the Task Force to Improve Business and Stability
Operations in Iraq. The Task Force, funded at $50 million under the previous
supplemental appropriations legislation, seeks to stimulate the economy and create
employment for Iraqi citizens by rehabilitating some of the roughly 200 state-owned
enterprises that comprised a large portion of the Iraqi economy prior to the U.S.
occupation. News reports have suggested some difficulty with the program, resulting
from the lack of electricity, the insecure environment, and a lack of enthusiasm from
U.S. companies that had been expected to invest in the facilities, among other
4 Prepared by Curt Tarnoff, Specialist in Foreign Affairs. For more detailed discussion of
the U.S. program of assistance to Iraq, see CRS Report RL31833, Iraq: Reconstruction
Assistance, by Curt Tarnoff.
5 “U.S. Falters in Bid to Boost Iraqi Business,” Washington Post, August 24, 2007; “In Iraq,
Under the State and Foreign Operations appropriations budget, the FY2008
emergency supplemental request would direct $1.2 billion toward Iraq — $797
million in the Economic Support Fund (ESF), $159 million in the International
Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INCLE), and $195 million in the Migration and
Refugee Assistance (MRA), and $80 million in the International Disaster and Famine
Assistance (IDFA) accounts. ESF is the primary source of funding for the assistance
provided by the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), which have grown under
the surge to 31, including 13 newly established ePRTs (embedded PRTs) embedded
with U.S. combat battalions and concentrated mostly in Baghdad and Anbar
province. The ePRTs are intended to help stabilize areas secured by U.S. and Iraqi
forces by supporting local small-scale, employment-generating, economic projects,
using ESF-funded community development grants, job training and micro-loan
programs, among other activities. PRTs also utilize ESF to increase the capacities
of local government officials to spend Iraqi-owned capital funds allocated by the
Iraqi government for infrastructure programs. At the national level, ESF supports
Ministerial capacity development, agriculture and private sector reform, and the
strengthening of democratization efforts.
The October budget revision added another $25 million to the ESF supplemental
request and proposed authorization language to allow the Administration to establish
a new Iraq enterprise fund based on the model created for east Europe and the former
Soviet Union. Enterprise funds are U.S. government-funded private sector-run
bodies that primarily provide loans or equity investments to small and medium
business. In the former communist countries, enterprise funds also encouraged
growth of the private sector, including support for mortgage lending markets and
establishment of private equity funds. The most successful example, the Polish
Fund, made many profitable investments, helping companies grow that otherwise
were unable to obtain financial support in the period just after the fall of communism.
Some of the funds, however, have been much less successful, either by taking on
poor investment risks, or unable to locate promising businesses because of the poor
business climate or competition from other private sector funding sources. Some
observers question the usefulness of the funds because their ostensible development
purpose seems often to conflict with pressures for economic profit.
The INCLE account largely would support rule of law and corrections programs.
The Administration request was expected to fund prison construction, something that
Congress has sometimes cut from previous requests. The request was also intended
to extend judicial reform and anticorruption efforts to the provinces. The MRA
request would address the continuing refugee crisis in the region; an estimated 2.0
million Iraqis have fled the country and another 2.2 million have been displaced due
to sectarian violence and instability. The IDA program would provide medical care,
food, shelter and other relief to refugees and displaced people.
FY2008 emergency funds were also requested for operational costs (not
included in the reconstruction aid total) for staffing and administering reconstruction
programs: $679 million for PRT and $45.8 million for USAID operations.
One Man’s Mission Impossible,” CNN Money.com, September 4, 2007.
Congressional Action on Iraq Reconstruction in FY2008
Consolidated Appropriations. In its consideration of the regular and
supplemental requests for Iraq reconstruction, Congress treated the two facets of
reconstruction — security and economic — quite differently. On the one hand,
Congress did provide a substantial part — $1.9 billion — of the Administration’s
$3.7 billion Defense appropriations supplemental request for security reconstruction
aid. It appropriated half of the request for the Iraq Security Forces Fund and nearly
half of the request for the CERP.
On the other hand, with a few discrete exceptions — all involving humanitarian
programs — Congress, in section 699K of Division J (the State and Foreign
Operations part of the omnibus appropriations), specifically rejected almost all
regular or supplemental economic assistance to Iraq, providing only about $250
million. It approved efforts to fund humanitarian demining ($16 million, drawing on
regular NADR funds), assist refugees and internally displaced persons (drawing on
supplemental MRA funds), and offer disaster relief (drawing on supplemental IDFA
funds), and it provided $5 million for the Marla Ruzicka War Victims Fund, and $10
million for the rescue of Iraqi scholars (drawing on regular ESF funds, but the latter
reportedly not yet allocated).
In the end, Congress appropriated 24% of the total International Affairs budget
supplemental request for Iraq reconstruction, which, with FY2008 regular and DOD
emergency appropriations brings Iraq reconstruction funding since 2003 to $44.8
billion. However, until the 2nd tranche of the supplemental is considered, U.S.
funding for PRT operations and programs and a wide range of other programs
designed to support the surge and enhance the capacity of the Iraqi government to
address its own needs will have to rely on available FY2007 funds.
Pending FY2008 Supplemental. The Administration is seeking the
remainder of its emergency Iraq reconstruction aid request — about $1 billion in
unenacted Foreign Operations appropriations and $2 billion in unenacted Defense
appropriations — when the second tranche is deliberated in spring 2008.
Table 3. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
for Iraq Reconstruction
(millions of U.S. dollars)
International Affairs (Budget Function 150 Accounts)
(P L110-161) P e ndi ng
Admini stration Em ergency F Y 2008
Request Allocation Supp.
Economic Support Fund (ESF)797.05.0797.0
International Narcotics Control and Law
Enforcement (INCLE)159.0 0.0 159.0
Migration and Refugee Assistancec
International Disaster Assistance (IDA)80.0 80.0 d —
TOTAL 150 Account1,231.0 234.5986.0
Department of Defense (Budget Function 050 Accounts)
Iraq Security Forces Fund (ISFF)3,000.01,500.01,500.0
Commander’s Emergency Responseafe
Iraq Freedom Fund (for Task Force to
Improve Business)100.0 — 100.0
TOTAL 050 Account3,709.71,870.01,959.7
150 & 0504,940.02,104.52,945.7
Sources: Department of State and DOD FY2008 Congressional Budget Justifications; H.R. 2764.
a. The total CERP request of $1,219.4 million is for both Iraq and Afghanistan. The amount included
here assumes that at least half will be used in Iraq.
b. Not included are requests of $45.8 million in USAID Iraq operational expenses (OE) and $679
million for PRT OE. H.R. 2764 provided USAID with $20.8 million in OE.
c. H.R. 2764 provides $200 million for MRA account (total account request was $230 million). Table
shows amount allocated to date for Iraq.
d. H.R. 2764 provides $110 million for Iraq and other countries affected by disasters. Total IDFA
account request was $80 million. Table shows amount allocated to date.
e. The total unenacted FY2008 CERP request of $719.4 million is for both Iraq and Afghanistan. The
amount included here assumes that at least half of the request is for Iraq.
f. Congress appropriated up to $500 million for the CERP. According to the SIGIR, Iraq has been
allocated $370 million as of end January 2008.
Af ghani stan6
Background. Afghanistan’s political transition was completed with the
convening of a parliament in December 2005, but in 2006 insurgent threats to
6 Prepared by Rhoda Margesson, Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy, and
Kenneth Katzman, Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs.
Afghanistan’s government escalated to the point that some experts began questioning
the success of U.S. stabilization efforts. In the political process, a new constitution
was adopted in January 2004, successful presidential elections were held on October
9, 2004, and parliamentary elections took place on September 18, 2005. The
parliament has become an arena for factions that have fought each other for nearly
three decades to debate and peacefully resolve differences. Afghan citizens have
started to enjoy new personal freedoms, particularly in the northern and western
regions of the country, that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are beginning
to participate in economic and political life, including as ministers, provincial
governors, and senior levels of the new parliament. The next elections are planned
The insurgency, led by remnants of the former Taliban regime, escalated in
and NATO military commanders have had recent successes in counter-insurgency
operations, but the Taliban continues to present a considerable threat to peace and
security in parts of Afghanistan. Slow reconstruction, corruption, and the failure to
extend Afghan government authority into rural areas and provinces, particularly in
the south and east, have contributed to the Taliban resurgence. Political leadership
in the more stable northern part of the country have registered concerns about
distribution of reconstruction funding. In addition, narcotics trafficking is resisting
counter-measures, and independent militias remain throughout the country, although
many have been disarmed. The Afghan government and U.S. officials have said that
some Taliban commanders are operating across the border from Pakistan, putting
them outside the reach of U.S./NATO forces in Afghanistan. In 2007, the
Administration unveiled the Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZ) in
Afghanistan and the border regions with Pakistan, an initiative to stimulate economic
activity in underdeveloped, isolated regions.
The United States and partner stabilization measures focus on strengthening the
central government and its security forces and on promoting reconstruction while
combating the renewed insurgent challenge. As part of this effort, the international
community has been running PRTs to secure reconstruction. Despite these efforts,
weak provincial governance is seen as a key obstacle to a democratic Afghanistan
and continues to pose a threat to reconstruction and stabilization efforts.
The FY2008 original and amended emergency supplemental
request. The Administration requested $339 million in ESF for Afghanistan
reconstruction assistance in the FY2008 emergency supplemental in February 2007.
Other parts of the supplement request for Afghanistan included increases in embassy
operations and security. The Administration amended the FY2008 supplemental
request in October 2007 for a total request of $839 million for reconstruction, which
included several provisions intended to continue U.S. efforts to stabilize Afghanistan
and continue economic reconstruction efforts.7
7 Funding figures obtained from the FY2008 Revised Emergency Proposal dated October
22, 2007; the proposed Budget for Fiscal Year 2008 (“Additional 2007 and 2008
Proposals”) submitted in February 2007; and the Supplemental Appropriations Justification
The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act funded most government
operations for which regular FY2008 appropriations bills — 11 in all — had not been
enacted. Although emergency funds for military operations in Afghanistan were
appropriated as part of the bridge supplemental in the Consolidated Appropriations
Act ($1.753 million), the supplemental request of $839 for reconstruction was not
Key elements of the FY2008 emergency supplemental requests include funding
for the ESF. In addition to the $339 million for ESF in the initial supplemental
request, the amended supplemental included additional funding for democratic
governance and reconstruction efforts to continue security and development strategy
that would be allocated as follows:
!$275 million to strengthen provincial governance and
responsiveness to the Afghan people. Funding would support a wide
range of programs, preparation activities for the 2009 election and
ongoing programs, such as the National Solidarity Program ($40
million), the Afghanistan Reconstruction Fund ($25 million), and
the Provincial Governance Fund ($50 million);
!$50 million as part of an effort to invest in basic social services,
such as health and education, particularly in rural areas; and
!$170 million for economic growth and infrastructure, including the
development of power sector projects ($115 million); road projects
($50 million) focused on those segments that are of strategic military
importance and provide key connections between the central and
provincial government capitals; and funding to support
Reconstruction Opportunity Zones ($5 million) in designated
economically isolated areas and to create employment alternatives.
In addition to ESF funding, the request includes:
!$5 million in Non-proliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and
Related Programs (NADR) to support the Afghan leadership through
the Presidential Protection Service.
Fiscal Year 2008 prepared by the Department of State and USAID.
Table 4. Afghanistan Reconstruction Assistance, FY2008
(millions of U.S. dollars)
(appropriationTotal FY2008 Supp H.R. 2764Pending FY2008
account)Supp RequestPL110-161Supp Request
Infrastructure aid (ESF)834.0 — 834.0
Nonproliferation5.0 — 5.0
Total839.0 — 839.0
Source: FY2008-FY2009 budget materials.
Notes: Data in this table reflect ongoing and FY2008 proposed funding for programs the same as or
similar to those requested in the FY2007 supplemental. The total line does not represent total aid or
mission operations for Afghanistan. Excluded from this table is proposed funding requested for FBI
operations in Afghanistan.
Acronyms: ESF-Economic Support Fund, NADR-Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are considered strategically
important to combating terrorism while continued terrorist and militant activities in
the frontier region remain a threat to the United States and its interests in
Afghanistan. The Government of Pakistan has developed a FATA Sustainable
Development Plan to be implemented over 10 years. In support of this plan, the State
Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development have put forward a
five-year $750 million development assistance strategy for the frontier region (a
pledge of $150 million per year) that complements the Government of Pakistan’s
plan.9 The U.S. objectives are to improve economic and social conditions in the
FATA in order to address the region’s use by terrorists and militants. Programs
would include governance, health and education services, and economic
development, such as agricultural productivity, infrastructure rehabilitation, credit,
and vocational training.
On November 3, 2007, President Musharraf imposed emergency rule and
suspended Pakistan’s constitution. In light of these events, the Administration
announced a review of U.S. assistance. However, no action was taken in 2007, and
in February 2008, Pakistan held what was reported to be a reasonably credible
national election that seated a new civilian government. On April 9, 2008, Secretary
of State Condoleezza Rice determined that a democratically elected government had
taken office in Pakistan on March 25, 2008, which permitted the removal of coup-
related sanctions on Pakistan and the resumption of assistance.
8 Prepared by Rhoda Margesson, Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy.
9 For more detail on Pakistan, see CRS Report RL33498, Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K.
The FY2008 original and amended supplemental request. The
Administration did not request funding for Pakistan in its original FY2008
emergency supplemental request in February 2007. In the FY2008 regular budget,
the President asked for $90 million for the frontier region development plan, which
left a gap of $60 million in the overall U.S. pledge of $150 million. The FY2008
amended supplemental request for $60 million for ESF would address this funding
gap and meet the full pledge as follows: Investment in governance and planning ($13
million); health and education programs ($15 million); and local economic
development ($32 million). The $60 million emergency supplemental request is in
addition to the regular appropriations from various accounts in the FY2008 budget.
No funding was requested for Sudan in the original FY2008 emergency
supplemental in February 2007. The Administration sought a total of $868.6 million
in the amended emergency supplemental for Sudan, most of which was for
humanitarian and peacekeeping support in the Darfur region. Under the Consolidated
Appropriations Act, Sudan received $334.8 million in the regular FY2008 budget and
also $468 for the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur
(UNAMID) peacekeeping mission.
FY2008 additional emergency supplemental request. Major elements
of the FY2008 amended emergency supplemental included the following:
!A $70 million request in ESF for Sudan to support upcoming
national elections that are to take place before July 2009, as
determined in the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement between
north and south Sudan. The assistance will focus on strengthening
political parties, drafting the electoral law, supporting an electoral
commission, promoting civic education, and supporting election-
related institutions and processes. The United Nations estimates that
the elections could cost nearly $400 million because of the logistical
hurdles in conducting elections in a post-conflict environment. $70
million remains in the pending FY2008 emergency supplemental;
!$723.6 million in support of the African Union/United Nations
Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) in the amended FY2008
supplemental. In the Consolidated Appropriations, $468 million was
appropriated; $333.6 remains in the pending FY2008 emergency
10 Prepared by Rhoda Margesson, Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy.
Table 5. Sudan Emergency Supplemental, FY2008
(millions of U.S. dollars)
F Y 2008 Finala
ActivityRequestH.R. 2764FY2008 Supp
Economic Support Fund (ESF)70.0 — 70.0
Source: FY2008- FY2009 budget materials.
Notes: The Total line does not represent total aid or mission operations for Sudan.
Acronyms: CIPA-Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities; ESF-Economic Support
Mexico and Central America11
The emergency supplemental request included $550 million to meet the first
installment of a reportedly $1 billion-plus anti-narcotics package for the Mexico and
Central America Security Initiative. Composed entirely of funds from the
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Account (INCLE), the
initiative is to address criminal gang and drug trafficking activities and to support
improved justice systems and rule of law programs. Mexico would see $500 million
of the initial package for border security technology and transport for law
enforcement and to improve judicial and prison systems. Countries in Central
America would receive $50 million to improve border security, deter the smuggling
of drugs, arms, and persons, and improve the justice sector and gang prevention
programs. Regular funding for Mexico totaled $65.4 million in FY2007 and a
requested $45.1 million in FY2008. The countries of Central America received
$134.8 million in FY2007 and are proposed to receive $146.5 million in FY2008.
Congress did not include this request in the FY2008 omnibus act.
West Bank and Gaza12
The FY2008 emergency supplemental request included $375 million to support
the Palestinian Authority (PA) government. The focus is on rule of law, economic
growth, and governance issues. The supplemental request was in addition to $77
million requested in the regular FY2008 budget and comes after a new PA
government was formed without Hamas control. Consisting largely of ESF funds,
11 Prepared by Connie Veillette, Specialist in Foreign Assistance. For more information, see
CRS Report RL34215, Mexico’s Drug Cartels, and CRS Report RL32724, Mexico-U.S.
Relations: Issues for Congress, both by Colleen W. Cook.
12 For more information, see CRS Report RL34074, The Palestinian Territories:
Background and U.S. Relations, and CRS Report RS22370, U.S. Foreign Assistance to the
Palestinians, both by Paul Morro.
$40 million is to address governance issues, $20 million would improve health care
services, $130 million is to support job creation, infrastructure, trade and investment,
and agriculture programs, and $150 million would consist of budget support in the
form of a cash transfer. An additional $25 million in INCLE funds would be used
to train and equip the Presidential Guards and National Security Force, and $35
million in MRA funds would be for Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza
and in refugee camps in Lebanon.
Congress included $542.6 million in emergency ESF and allocated $155 million
of those funds to the West bank and Gaza. No emergency INCLE funds were
provided. A total of $200 million in emergency MRA was provided; the request was
$230 million, which included $35 million for the West Bank and Gaza.
The Administration proposed $106 million in ESF funds for North Korea as a
result of commitments made as part of the Six Party Talks. In February 2007, North
Korea agreed to shut down and eventually abandon the Yongbyon nuclear facility,
to allow International Atomic Energy Agency monitors back in the country and to
disable all existing nuclear facilities. In return, the United States and other Six Party
Talks members (South Korea, China, Russia and Japan) agreed to provide 1 million
metric tons of heavy fuel oil, or the equivalent in other assistance, as North Korea
meets its commitments. The U.S. share is one-quarter of the 1 million metric tons,
or equivalent assistance. The total cost for the U.S. commitment is $131 million.
The President authorized $25 million in FY2007 supplemental funds, leaving $106
million that would be provided with the FY2008 supplemental funding.
The omnibus bill provided $53 million in ESF funds for North Korea but does
not designate them as emergency.
Other Humanitarian Assistance14
Although proposed aid packages for specific countries anticipate and identify
some humanitarian needs, the Administration also seeks funding for what it describes
as unmet or unforeseen humanitarian needs, including $350 million in additional P.L.
480 - Title II assistance to meet emergency food needs in the Darfur region of Sudan
and eastern Chad and elsewhere worldwide, including places such as southern Africa,
and the Horn of Africa and Kenya.
In addition, the Administration’s original request asked for $230 million for
Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) for anticipated and unanticipated refugee
and migration emergencies, of which $195 million was requested for humanitarian
assistance to Iraqi refugees. This was an increase of $160 million for Iraqi refugees;
$35 million was requested in the earlier version of the FY2008 emergency
13 For more information, see CRS Report RL33590, North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons
Development and Diplomacy, by Larry A. Niksch.
14 Prepared by Rhoda Margesson, Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy.
supplemental request. In addition, $35 million was requested for the emergency
needs of Palestinian refugees in Gaza and West Bank, and for Palestinian refugee
camps in Lebanon. $200 million was appropriated for MRA in the Consolidated
Appropriations Act, of which $195 was allocated for Iraqi refugees. $30 million (of
the original $230 million request) remains as part of the pending FY2008
supplemental request for assistance to Iraqi refugees.
Appendix A. FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Request, State Department and Foreign
(millions of U.S. dollars)
FY2008 TotalFY08 SuppState Dept State Dept.
FY2008 BaseSupp FundsFunds enactedFY08 SuppPending FY08
AccountRequestRequested in P.L. 110-161EstimateSupp estimates
Diplomatic & Consular Programs4,942.72,283.0781.6575.01,708.0
Embassy Security, Construction, Maintenance792.5160.0 — — 160.0
iki/CRS-RL34276 Contributions to International Organizations1,354.453.0 — — 53.0
g/w Contributions to International Peacekeeping1,107.0723.6468.0390.0333.6
leak Board for International Broadcasting618.8 — 12.012.0 —
://wikiTotal, State Department8,196.63,219.61,261.6977.02,254.6
FY2008 TotalFY08State Dept.State Dept
FY2008 BaseSupp Funds ConsolidatedFY08 BaseFY08 Supp.
Economic Support Fund3,319.62,217.0542.6208.02,009.0
International Narcotics Control/Law634.6734.0 — — 734.0
Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining464.05.0 — — 5.0
Migration and Refugee Assistance773.5230.0200.0200.030.0
International Disaster Assistancea297.380.0110.080.0 —
iki/CRS-RL34276 USAID Operating Expenses609.061.820.820.841.0
s.or Global Health/Child Survival — — 115.0 — —
leak Foreign Military Financing — — 100.0 — —
://wiki Peacekeeping Operations — — 35.0 — —
Total, Foreign Operations6,098.03,327.81,123.4508.82,819.0
Total, State and Foreign Operations14,294.66,547.42,385.01,485.85,073.6
P.L. 480 Food Aid1,319.4350.0 — — 350.0
State Dept. FY2008 supplemental estimates do not match levels in the FY2008 consolidated funds because some supplemental appropriations were moved into FY2008 regular
nts and some funds provided by Congress were for uses other than what State Dept had requested. Table does not include all accounts in the State Department, Foreign Operations,
Related Programs appropriations bills. Accounts listed above are those for which emergency supplemental funds are requested.
he International Disaster Assistance account was previously called International Disaster and Famine Assistance.