Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted and Resolutions Adopted by Congress, 1990-2003
CRS Report for Congress
Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted
and Resolutions Adopted by Congress,
Jeremy M. Sharp
Middle East Policy Analyst
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The
list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action or diplomatic1
pressure to be taken against Iraq. The list does not include foreign aid appropriations
bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United2
Nations sanctions regime against Iraq. Also, measures that were not passed only in
either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals inth
the 108 Congress and several relevant concurrent and joint resolutions from previous
Congresses ). For a more in-depth analysis of U.S. action against Iraq, see CRS Issue
Brief IB92117, Iraq, Compliance, Sanctions and U.S. Policy. This report will be
H.J.Res. 658Supported the actions taken by the President with respect to Iraqi
aggression against Kuwait and confirmed United States resolve.
Passed in the House: October 1, 1990
1 This compilation of legislation does not include bills related to humanitarian support for the
Iraqi population and bills that call on Iraq to compensate victims of the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
2 The following foreign aid appropriations bills each contain a section that denies foreign aid to
nations deemed in violation of U.N. sanctions against Iraq: P.L. 103-87, P.L. 103-306, P.L. 104-
107, P.L. 104-108, P.L. 105-118, P.L. 105-277, P.L. 106-113, P.L. 106-429, P.L. 107-115. The
same restriction also appears in the House and Senate versions of current appropriations bills.
Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress
H.Con.Res. 382Expressed the sense of the Congress that the crisis created by Iraq’s
invasion and occupation of Kuwait must be addressed and resolved
on its own terms separately from other conflicts in the region.
Passed in the House: October 23, 1990
S.Res. 318Commended the President for his actions taken against Iraq and
called for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, the freezing of
Iraqi assets, the cessation of all arms shipments to Iraq, and the
imposition of sanctions against Iraq.
Passed in the Senate: August 2, 1990
P.L. 101-509(H.R. 5241). Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government
Appropriations Act FY1991 (Section 630). Urged the President to
ensure that coalition allies were sharing the burden of collective
defense and contributing financially to the war effort.
Became public law: November 5, 1990
P.L. 101-510(H.R. 4739). Defense Authorization Act FY1991 (Section 1458).
Empowered the President to prohibit any and all products of a
foreign nation which has violated the economic sanctions against
Iraq. Became public law: November 5, 1990
P.L. 101- 513(H.R. 5114). The Iraq Sanctions Act of 1990 (Section 586).
Imposed a trade embargo on Iraq and called for the imposition and
enforcement of multilateral sanctions in accordance with United
Nations Security Council Resolutions.
Became public law: November 5, 1990
P.L. 101-515(H.R. 5021). Department of Commerce, Justice, and State
Appropriations Act FY1991 (Section 608 a & b). Restricted the use
of funds to approve the licensing for export of any supercomputer to
any country whose government is assisting Iraq develop its ballistic
missile program, or chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons
capability. Became public law: November 5, 1990
P.L. 102-1(H.J.Res. 77). Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq
Resolution. Gave congressional authorization to expel Iraq from
Kuwait in accordance with United Nations Security Council
Resolution 678, which called for the implementation of eleven
previous Security Council Resolutions.
Became public law: January 12, 1991
P.L. 102-138(H.R. 1415). The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY1992
(Section 301). Stated that the President should propose to the
Security Council that members of the Iraqi regime be put on trial for
war crimes. Became public law: October 28, 1991
P.L. 102-190(H.R. 2100). Defense Authorization Act for FY1992 (Section 1095).
Supported the use of “all necessary means to achieve the goals of
United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 as being consistent
with the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq
Resolution (P.L. 102-1).” Became public law: December 5, 1991
P.L. 103-160(H.R. 2401). Defense Authorization Act FY1994 (Section 1164).
Denied defectors of the Iraqi military entry into the United States
unless those persons had assisted U.S. or coalition forces and had not
committed any war crimes. Became public law: November 30, 1993
P.L. 103-236 (H.R. 2333). Foreign Relations Authorization Act FY1994, 1995
(Section 507). Expressed the sense of Congress that the United
States should continue to advocate the maintenance of Iraq’s
territorial integrity and the transition to a unified, democratic Iraq.
Became public law: April 30, 1994
H.Res. 120Urged the President to take “all appropriate action” to secure the
release and safe exit from Iraq of American citizens William Barloon
and David Daliberti, who had mistakenly crossed Iraq’s border and
were detained. Passed in the House: April 3, 1995
S.Res. 288Commended the military action taken by the United States following
U.S. air strikes in northern Iraq against Iraqi radar and air defense
installations. This action was taken during the brief Kurdish civil
war in 1996. Passed in the Senate: September 5, 1996
H.Res. 322Supported the pursuit of peaceful and diplomatic efforts in seeking
Iraqi compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions
regarding the destruction of Iraq’s capability to deliver and produce
weapons of mass destruction. However, if such efforts fail,
“multilateral military action or unilateral military action should be
taken.” Passed in the House: November 13, 1997
H.Con.Res.137 Expressed concern for the urgent need of a criminal tribunal to try
members of the Iraqi regime for war crimes.
Passed in the House: January 27, 1998
H.Res. 612Reaffirmed that it should be the policy of the United States to
support efforts to remove the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq and
to promote the emergence of a democratic government to replace that
regime. Passed in the House: December 17, 1998
S.Con.Res. 78 Called for the indictment of Saddam Hussein for war crimes.
Passed in the Senate: March 13, 1998
P.L. 105-174(H.R. 3579). 1998 Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions Act
(Section 17). Expressed the sense of Congress that none of the funds
appropriated or otherwise made available by this act be used for the
conduct of offensive operations by the United States Armed Forces
against Iraq for the purpose of enforcing compliance with United
Nations Security Council Resolutions, unless such operations are
specifically authorized by a law enacted after the date of the
enactment of this act. Became public law: May 1, 1998
P.L. 105-235(S.J.Res. 54). Iraqi Breach of International Obligations. Declared
that by evicting weapons inspectors, Iraq was in “material breach” of
its cease-fire agreement. Urged the President to take “appropriate
action in accordance with the Constitution and relevant laws of the
United States, to bring Iraq into compliance with its international
obligations.” Became public law: August 14, 1998
P.L. 105-338(H.R. 4655). Iraq Liberation Act of 1988 (Section 586). Declared
that it should be the policy of the United States to “support efforts”
to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq and replace him with
a democratic government. Authorized the President to provide the
Iraqi democratic opposition with assistance for radio and television
broadcasting, defense articles and military training, and humanitarian
assistance. Became public law: October 31, 1998
H.J.Res. 75Stated that Iraq’s refusal to allow weapons inspectors was a material
breach of its international obligations and constituted “a mounting
threat to the United States, its friends and allies, and international
peace and security.” Passed in the House: December 20, 2001
P.L. 107-243(H.J.Res. 114). To Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces
against Iraq. Authorized the President to use armed force to defend
the national security of the United States against the threat posed by
Iraq and to enforce all relevant U.N. resolutions regarding Iraq.
Became public law: October 16, 2002
H.Con.Res. 104Expresses the unequivocal support and appreciation of the nation (1)
to the President as Commander-in-Chief for his firm leadership and
decisive action in the conduct of military operations in Iraq as part of
the on-going Global War on Terrorism; (2) to the members of the
U.S. armed forces serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom, who are
carrying out their missions with excellence, patriotism, and bravery;
and (3) to the families of the U.S. military personnel serving in
Operation Iraqi Freedom, who are providing support and prayers for
their loved ones currently engaged in military operations in Iraq.
Passed in the House: March 21, 2003.
S.Res. 95Commends and supports the efforts and leadership of the President,
as Commander in Chief, in the conflict against Iraq. Commends, and
expresses the gratitude of the nation to all members of the U.S.
armed forces (whether on active duty, in the National Guard, or in
the Reserves) and the civilian employees who support their efforts,
as well as the men and women of civilian national security agencies
who are participating in the military operations in the Persian Gulf
region, for their professional excellence, dedicated patriotism, and
exemplary bravery. Expresses the deep condolences of the Senate to
the families of brave Americans who have lost their lives in this
noble undertaking, over many years, against Iraq. Expresses sincere
gratitude to British Prime Minister Tony Blair and his government
for their courageous and steadfast support, as well as gratitude to
other allied nations for their military support, logistical support, and
other assistance in the campaign against Saddam Hussein's regime.
Passed in the Senate: March 20, 2003.
For a complete list of 108th legislation related to Iraq that has been proposed in either the
House or the Senate, please see Iraq - U.S. Confrontation: Legislation in the 108th
Congress3 available online at [http://www.crs.gov/products/browse/iraqleg.shtml].
3 Unlike the focus of the legislation listed in this report, Iraq - U.S. Confrontation: Legislation
in the 108th Congress covers all aspects of the Iraq - U.S. confrontation, ranging from the
domestic impacts of war to the authorization of military force.