Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update

CRS Report for Congress
Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste:
2001 Update
July 19, 2001
James E. McCarthy
Specialist in Environmental Policy
Resources, Science, and Industry Division

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress

Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste:
2001 Update
This report, which replaces CRS Report RL30409, provides updated information
on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste (MSW). Since the late 1980s,
Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would allow states to
impose restrictions on interstate waste shipments, a step the Constitution prohibits in
the absence of congressional authorization. Over this period, there has been a
continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for
disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report
provides data useful in addressing these questions.
Total interstate waste shipments continue to rise, due to the closure of older
local landfills and the increasing consolidation of the waste management industry.
Between our year 2000 survey (reporting largely 1998 data) and the current survey
(generally reporting 1999 or 2000 data), reported interstate waste imports have
increased by 3.6 million tons, about 13%. In the last seven years, reported imports
have more than doubled, from 14.5 million tons in 1993 to 32.0 million tons in 2000.
Pennsylvania remains, by far, the largest waste importer. The state received 9.8
million tons of municipal solid waste and 2.5 million tons of other non-hazardous
waste from out of state in 2000, more than 30% of the national total for interstate
shipments. Virginia, the second largest importer, received 60% less than the amount
received by Pennsylvania. Michigan, the third largest importer, imported 2.8 million
tons of MSW in fiscal year 2000, an increase of nearly one million tons over the
previous year. Twenty states had increased imports in the current report – the largest
increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. In all, eight states reported
imports that exceeded one million tons.
While waste imports increased overall, several states (including Indiana, Kansas,
Mississippi, and New Hampshire) reported sharp declines in waste imports.
New York remains the largest exporter of waste, with New Jersey and Illinois
in second and third place. Exports from New York, already nearly 7 million tons per
year, are expected to grow further because of the closure of New York City’s Fresh
Kills Landfill in March 2001.

Introduction ................................................ 1
Total Shipments.............................................6
States Reporting Increased Imports..............................6
States Reporting Decreased Imports.............................8
Major Exporters............................................8
Net Imports and Exports......................................9
Additional Information........................................9
List of Figures
Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons......2
Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons......2
List of Tables
Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons)......3
Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons)......4
Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest
year (in tons)...........................................5
Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and
Sources of Imported MSW, by State........................10

Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update
This report provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal
solid waste. Concerned about increased waste imports, some states have attempted
to regulate this commerce; federal courts, however, have declared these state
restrictions unconstitutional. If states are to have such authority, congressional action
is required.
Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills1
that would grant such authority. Over this period, there has been a continuing
interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal,
and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data
useful in addressing these questions. It updates information provided in earlier CRS2
Not all states require reporting of waste imports, and very few track exports, so
the available data are incomplete and in some cases represent estimates rather than
actual measurements. From what is known, waste shipments appear to be
concentrated among 25-30 states in the Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, and Pacific
Coast regions (Figures 1 and 2). This report presents information gathered through
telephone contacts with solid waste officials in those states, the District of Columbia,
and the Canadian province of Ontario.
Data obtained from these contacts are summarized in Tables 1, 2, and 3, and
Figures 1 and 2. Table 4 presents additional information, including the names and
telephone numbers of state contacts.

1 Legislation on interstate shipment of waste has been introduced in every Congress since the
100th. In the 104th Congress, the Senate passed S. 534. The bill would have granted states
authority to restrict new shipments of municipal solid waste from out of state, if requested by
an affected local government. In the 103rd Congress, both the House and Senate passed
interstate waste legislation (H.R. 4779 and S. 2345), but lack of agreement on common
language prevented enactment. For a discussion of the issues addressed in these bills, see
CRS Report RS20106, Interstate Waste Transport: Legislative Issues.
2 This report replaces Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2000 Update, CRS
Report RL30409. Earlier reports were Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1998
Update, CRS Report 98-689; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1997 Update,
CRS Report 97-349; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1996 Update, CRS
Report 96-712; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1995 Update, CRS Report

95-570; and Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste, CRS Report 93-743.

Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons
Amounts in Tons
1,000,000 or greater
500,000 to 999,999
100,000 to 499,999
Less than 100,000

Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons

Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year
(in tons)
StateQuantity Imported
Pennsylvaniaa 9,764,147b
Virginia 3,891,320
Michiganc,d 2,840,338
Ohio 1,774,134
Illinoisd, e 1,541,913f
Indiana 1,439,431
Oregone 1,239,579
Wisconsin 1,067,926g
South Carolina 862,925e
New Jersey 836,154
Kentucky 626,920
Nevada 541,400
New York539,000e
New Hampshire 538,700h
Georgia 515,604h
Iowa 485,000e
Mississippi 449,821h
Kansas 434,000i
Arizona 408,718j
Tennessee 297,081k
West Virginia250,264e
Washington 243,292e
New Mexico 241,771e, l
Connecticut 239,842
Alabama 210,000
Maine 164,527
Nebraska 122,500m
Utah 66,000
Marylande, n 62,246e
North Dakota 54,460
Texase 46,611h
North Carolina 41,840
Massachusetts 29,412e
Idaho 17,682k
California 11,069
a In addition, Pennsylvania received 2,473,843 tons of other waste (industrial waste, construction/demolition
[C&D] waste, ash, asbestos, and sludge) from out of state at MSW landfills in 2000.b
Virginia also imported 580,226 tons of other waste, mostly sludge, C&D, ash, and industrial waste in 2000.c
10/1/99 - 9/30/2000.d
Converted from cubic yards using 3.3 cu. yds. = 1 ton.e
Indiana also imported 172,410 tons of non-municipal solid waste, primarily C&D and industrial waste in 2000.g
7/1/98 - 6/30/99.h
7/1/99 - 6/30/2000.i
8/1/97 - 7/31/98. k
Connecticut import total does not include waste from New York that was received at a Connecticut transfer
station and re-exported to other states for disposal.m
Utah landfills also imported 299,000 tons of industrial waste.n
Maryland also imported 469,944 tons of C&D waste.
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials.

Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year
(in tons)
StateQuantity Exported
New Yorka 6,807,167
New Jersey4,158,060
Illinois 3,145,821b
Missouri 1,792,753
Maryland 1,791,103
Ontario, Canada1,277,822
California 1,195,000
North Carolina1,106,897
Ohio 1,039,876
Massachusetts 984,558
District of Columbia978,900c
Indiana 908,418
Washington 832,421
Minnesota 619,592
Connecticutd 554,482
Pennsylvania 553,570
Texas 395,067
Iowa 380,000
West Virginia305,257
Louisiana 300,000
Florida 289,613
Wisconsin 250,776
Georgia 250,000
Tennessee 151,229
Virginia 150,000
Rhode Island146,950
Kentucky 94,171
Vermont 88,350
Michigan 85,210
Alabama 75,000
Idaho 65,530
New Hampshire64,000
South Carolina57,377
Arkansas 53,860
Maine 50,862
Kansas 43,000
Alaska 27,500
Delaware 24,618
Nebraska 18,203
Oregon 17,682
Colorado 15,000
Utah 1,000
a As reported by four importing states (Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Ohio). New York’s data
indicate exports of 5,610,000 tons.b
About 40% of Missouri’s exports are believed to be construction and demolition or industrial waste sent to
MSW landfills.c
As reported by four receiving states (Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois). Indiana reported 289,856 tons
of exports, but noted that the amount was incomplete because it only counted exports from transfer stations.d
As reported by receiving states, Connecticut exports may include waste that originated in New York State,
but was managed at a Connecticut transfer station.
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. In many cases,
the amount is based on data compiled by receiving states. See Table 4 entries for additional information.

Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or
latest year (in tons)
StateImportsExportsNet Imports/Exports
Pennsylvania 9,764,147553,5709,210,577
Virginia 3,891,320 150,000 3,741,320
Michigan 2,840,338 85,210 2,755,118
Oregon 1,239,579 17,682 1,221,897
Wisconsin 1,067,926 250,776 817,150
South Carolina 862,92557,377805,548
Ohio 1,774,134 1,039,876 734,258
Nevada 541,400 - 541,400
Kentucky 626,920 94,171 532,749
Indiana 1,439,431 908,418 531,013
New Hampshire538,70064,000474,700
Mississippi 449,821 - 449,821
Arizona 408,718 - 408,718
Kansas 434,000 43,000 391,000
Georgia 515,604 250,000 265,604
New Mexico241,771-241,771
Tennessee 297,081151,229145,852
Alabama 210,000 75,000 135,000
Maine 164,527 50,862 113,665
Iowa 485,000 380,000 105,000
Nebraska 122,500 18,203 104,297
Utah 66,000 1,000 65,000
North Dakota54,460-54,460
Montana 31,693 - 31,693
Colorado - 15,000 -15,000
Delaware - 24,618 -24,618
Alaska - 27,500 -27,500
Idaho 17,682 65,530 -47,848
Arkansas - 53,860 -53,860
West Virginia250,264305,257-54,993
Vermont - 88,350 -88,350
Rhode Island-146,950-146,950
Florida - 289,613 -289,613
Louisiana - 300,000 -300,000
Connecticut 239,842 554,482 -314,640
Texas 46,611 395,067 -348,456
Washington 243,292 832,421 -589,129
Minnesota - 619,592 -619,592
Massachusetts 29,412 984,558 -955,146
District of Columbia-978,900-978,900
North Carolina41,8401,106,897-1,065,057
California 11,069 1,195,000 -1,183,931
Ontario, Canada-1,277,822-1,277,822
Illinois 1,541,9133,145,821-1,603,908
Missouri 183,042 1,792,753 -1,609,711
Maryland 62,246 1,791,103 -1,728,857
New Jersey836,1544,158,060-3,321,906
New York539,0006,807,167 -6,268,167
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews. Data subject to numerous qualifications: see notes from Tables
1, 2, and 4.

Total Shipments
The data show that total interstate waste shipments continue to rise: imports in
the current survey totaled 32.0 million tons, 14.6% of the 220 million tons of
municipal solid waste generated in the United States.3 Between our year 2000 report
(reporting largely 1998 data) and the current survey (reporting generally 1999 and
2000 data), imports increased 3.6 million tons, about 13%. Since 1993, reported
imports have more than doubled, from 14.5 million tons in 1993 to 32.0 million tons
in the current survey.
States Reporting Increased Imports
Twenty states had increased imports of municipal waste in 2000, with the largest
increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. The increases in these two states,
2.6 million tons and 1.1 million tons respectively, total more than the entire increase
nationally. The other 48 states added together show a net decrease in waste imports
of 0.1 million tons.
The preponderance of these two states in the 2000 waste statistics demonstrates
another element of the emerging picture of interstate waste shipment: 52% of total
municipal waste imports are disposed in just three states: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and
Pennsylvania continues to be the largest waste importer, by far. Disposal
facilities in the state received 9.8 million tons of MSW and 2.5 million tons of other
nonhazardous waste from out of state in 2000. The amounts represented half of all
solid waste disposed in the state and more than 30% of the national total for interstate
After Pennsylvania, Virginia is the largest waste importer, with 3.9 million tons
of MSW imports and 580,226 tons of other nonhazardous waste. Despite predictions
that Virginia would receive increased imports as New York’s Fresh Kills landfill
phased out operations, waste imports to Virginia remained roughly the same in the

1998-2000 period.

Michigan, the third largest waste importer in 2000, saw out-of-state waste
disposed in the state grow by more than 1.1 million tons that year. Substantial
amounts of waste come to Michigan from Illinois, Indiana, and other neighboring
states, but the biggest source, accounting for about 45% of Michigan’s out-of-state
waste, is Ontario, Canada. Ontario’s waste shipments are growing as the Toronto
area awards new contracts for waste disposal and closes its two remaining landfills.

3 Because many of the larger importers now differentiate MSW from other non-hazardous
waste imports, we compared total MSW imports to EPA’s national estimate of MSW
generation (220 million tons in the latest available year, 1998). State-reported waste
generation, summarized in BioCycle magazine’s annual survey, is substantially higher (340
million tons in 1998), but is likely to include other nonhazardous waste, provided it was
disposed at MSW facilities. For state-reported data, see Jim Glenn, “The State of Garbage
in America,” BioCycle, April 1999, p. 60.

At the beginning of 1999, Toronto area municipalities were managing about 2.8
million tons of waste annually, of which about 350,000 tons were shipped to
Michigan. By early 2003, however, there will be virtually no local disposal capacity.
Barring unforeseen developments, most of this waste is expected to be sent to
Michigan for disposal.
In other highlights:
!Eight states reported imports exceeding one million tons per year in the latest
year, a figure unchanged from our previous survey, which reported 1998 data.
!Another 20 states had imports exceeding 100,000 tons.
!For the third year in a row, New Jersey is on the list of major importers, with

836,154 tons of MSW imports in 1999 (2000 data were not yet available).

Imports in 1999 grew by more than 250,000 tons. The state is still a major
exporter of waste, as well: according to New Jersey, MSW exports totaled 2.5
million tons in 1999, and receiving states estimate the total exports at more
than 4 million tons in 2000. But the absence of flow control (local government
requirements that waste within their jurisdiction be disposed at local facilities,
which were overturned by the courts in the mid-1990s) has led waste-to-
energy facilities in New Jersey to search for waste to replace local waste now
being disposed elsewhere. As a result, large amounts of waste are entering
New Jersey from New York.
!New York, the nation’s largest waste exporter, also saw rapid growth in waste
imports in 2000. The state imported 539,000 tons of waste in 2000, an
increase from 130,000 in our previous survey.
!Other states reporting major increases in imports were Ohio, Georgia, South
Carolina, and Kentucky. Ohio had a nearly 700,000 ton increase in MSW
imports between 1998 and 2000, Georgia experienced a nearly 300,000 ton
increase over the two years, and South Carolina and Kentucky both had
increases in the 150,000 - 200,000 ton range.
!Although there are no comprehensive data, imports to transfer stations4 have
become a political issue in some locations. Transfer stations are generally
located in urban areas and are subject to less stringent regulation than disposal
facilities. Heavy truck traffic and odors have aroused concerns in some
neighboring communities. Both Connecticut and the District of Columbia
report significant amounts of out-of-state waste imported to transfer stations,
then exported to other states for disposal. New York City’s plan to export
waste to transfer stations in New Jersey has raised substantial controversy.5

4 Transfer stations receive waste from collection trucks, compact it, bale it, and load
it on larger trucks for disposal elsewhere.
5 See, for example, “Garbage Plan Ignites Border Tensions,” New York Times, December

3, 1998, p. A27.

States Reporting Decreased Imports
While waste imports increased overall, 14 states reported declines in waste
imports. In half the cases, the declines were small, but seven others had declines
exceeding 100,000 tons. Most notable were: Indiana, where waste imports have
declined 742,000 tons since 1998; Kansas, which declined 366,000 tons and now
imports about half the amount received in the mid-1990s; Mississippi, which declined
about 350,000 tons, due to markedly lower shipments from New Orleans; and New
Hampshire, where new permit conditions imposed on the state’s largest landfill
contributed to a state-wide reduction in imports of almost 280,000 tons.
Major Exporters
Eight states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Missouri, Maryland, California,
North Carolina, and Ohio) exported more than one million tons of waste to facilities
in other states in the latest reporting period, and six other states and the District of
Columbia exported more than half a million tons. The Canadian province of Ontario
also exported a substantial amount of municipal waste (1,277,000 tons) to Michigan.
New York, New Jersey, and Illinois remained the largest exporters. Together
these three states accounted for 46% of waste exports nationally.
New York reported exports of 5.61 million tons of MSW in 2000, an increase
of 29% in the 1998-2000 period. But receiving states report even higher totals, 6.82
million tons in 2000. Despite the already large amount, waste exports from New
York are expected to grow further because of the March 2001 closure of New York
City’s Fresh Kills Landfill — the city’s last disposal facility.
New Jersey’s estimated exports, 4.16 million tons, have also grown dramatically.
In New Jersey’s case, the cause of increased exports is the overturning of the state’s
flow control law, which, until 1997, directed much of the state’s waste to high-cost
local facilities for disposal. The state law was overturned and the state exhausted its
appeals in October 1997. Exports have since grown by nearly 2 million tons.
Illinois’ exports, at 3.15 million tons, declined in 2000, after several years of6
rapid growth: in 1998, they were about four times the amount reported for 1995.
Most of the exports originate in Cook County (Chicago and its suburbs), which has
a relative shortage of disposal capacity. Illinois as a whole reported a more than
doubling of landfill capacity between 1995 and 2000. But Chicago is located near the
border of both Indiana and Wisconsin; so increases in capacity elsewhere in Illinois
may not affect disposal decisions in the metropolitan area.
Maryland, California, and North Carolina all showed large increases in waste
exports (around 500,000 tons each) in the reporting period. Each of the three appears
to be an example of the growing regionalization of waste disposal markets, as waste
flowed from them to large disposal facilities in adjoining states.

6 Illinois, like most states, does not report waste exports. This export estimate was derived
from data provided by neighboring states.

Net Imports and Exports
Table 3 combines import and export data to rank the states by net amounts
imported or exported. The table shows that 15 states (Pennsylvania, Virginia,
Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, Georgia, Tennessee, and Iowa among the net importers,
and West Virginia, Connecticut, Washington, Illinois, Missouri, New Jersey, and New
York among net exporters) both export and import in excess of 100,000 tons of
municipal solid waste.
There are several factors at work here. In the larger states, there are sometimes
differences in available disposal capacity in different regions within the state. Areas
without capacity may be closer to landfills (or may at least find cheaper disposal
options) in other states. A good example is Illinois: the Chicago area, which is close
to two other states, exports significant amounts of waste out of state, despite Illinois
being a large waste importer with available capacity in other parts of the state.
As noted earlier, the movement of waste also represents the growing
regionalization and consolidation of the waste industry. In 1999, the three largest
firms (Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Republic Services) accounted for 81%
of total revenues of the industry’s 100 largest firms.7 These large firms offer
integrated waste services, from collection to transfer station to disposal site, in many
locations. Often, they ship waste to their own disposal facility across a border, rather
than dispose of it at an in-state facility owned by a rival. As small landfills continue
to close — the number of U.S. landfills declined 51% between 1993 and 19998 — this
trend toward regionalization and consolidation is likely to continue. The amount of
waste being shipped across state lines for disposal may rise in this process.
Additional Information
The remainder of this report consists of a table summarizing waste import and
export data, by state. All 50 states and the District of Columbia are listed in
alphabetical order, with data for the amount of waste exported, destination of exports,
amount of waste imported, source of imports, and a state agency contact for
additional information.

7 “The Seventh Annual Waste Age 100,” Waste Age, September 2000, pp. 42-51.
8 “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, April 1994, p. 51, and April 2000, p. 36.

Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State
Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
No reporting system. Mostly to Mississippi.210,000 tons in 1998,Mostly from Georgia.John Narramore,
Mississippi reportedaccording to BioCycleAL Dept. of Environmental
Alabamareceiving about 75,000 tonsof waste from Alabama inmagazine survey. Probablystill about the same,Management,(334) 271-7764
1999. Very small amountsaccording to the state.
to Georgia and Tennessee.
Alaska estimates exports atWashingtonNoneN.A.Glenn Miller,
Alaska about 27,500 tons.Alaska Dept. ofEnvironmental Conservation
iki/CRS-RL31051(907) 465-5153
g/wVery little. There are aNevada and New Mexico.408,718 tons in the periodAlmost all from California,David Janke,
s.orArizona couple of small flows inareas that are not accessible4/1/99 - 3/31/2000.especially the San Diegoarea.Arizona Department ofEnvironmental Quality,
leakfrom the rest of the state.(602) 207-4173
://wiki53,860 tons reported byMissouriArkansas does not measureN.A.Darlene Hale,
httpArkansas Missouri in 2000.waste imports. The state isnot believed to be a majorArkansas Dept. of PollutionControl and Ecology,
importer. (501) 682-0602
California does not havePrimarily Nevada and11,069 tons in 1998 (latestN.A.Tracy Harper,
current data on wasteArizona. Smaller amounts toavailable).CA Integrated Waste
California exports. Four neighboringstates report 1,195,000 tonsWashington and Oregon.Management Board,(916) 341-6292
in the most recent reporting
period (1999 or 2000).
CRS estimates exports atPrimarily New Mexico.No tracking system. SmallKansas and Nebraska.Glenn Mallory,
15,000 tons. According toamounts may enter fromCO Dept. of Public Health
the state, the city of DurangoKansas and Nebraska.and Environment,
Coloradoexports its waste to NewMexico. There are also(303) 692-3445

small amounts crossing the
Kansas and Nebraska

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
266,230 tons of MSW inPennsylvania (428,494 tons)239,842 tons in 1999. (DoesAbout equally dividedJudy Belaval,
1999, according toOhio (125,988 tons). Somenot include waste from Newamong Massachusetts,CT Dept. of Environmental
ConnecticutConnecticut. Receivingstates report a substantialto New Jersey, also.York that is managed at aConnecticut transfer stationRhode Island, and NewYork.Protection,(860) 424-3237
increase in 2000, to 554,482and re-exported for
tons. disposal.)
24,618 tons in 2000,Almost all to Pennsylvania.MSW landfills in the state’sN.A.Mike Apgar,
according to Pennsylvania3 counties are operated by aDelaware Dept. of Natural
and Virginia. quasi-state authority and areResources and
prohibited from taking out-Environmental Control,
Delawareof-state waste. A privatefacility in the state imports(302) 739-3689
close to 400,000 tons per
iki/CRS-RL31051year of “dry waste,”primarily construction and
g/wdemolition waste.
leak978,900 tons in 2000,88% to Virginia; 12% toNone for disposal. MarylandSybil Hammond,
according to Virginia andPennsylvania.However, D.C. reportedD.C. Dept. of Public Works,
://wikiDistrict of ColumbiaPennsylvania. 348,500 tons of out-of-statewaste were handled at D.C.(202) 673-6833
httptransfer stations in FY 1999,
then shipped to Virginia for
Florida has no reportingGeorgia.Maybe a little, but disposalN.A.Peter Goren,
system, but Georgia reportedis generally less expensiveFlorida Dept. of
receiving 289,613 tons fromin Georgia, so there’s notEnvironmental Protection,
Florida in FY 2000. Wastemuch import.(850) 487-9532

Floridais exported mostly fromborder counties, according to
Florida, and represents a
small fraction of the 30
million tons of waste
generated in the state.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
CRS estimates 250,000 tonsMostly to Alabama. South515,604 tons in the period56% from FloridaScott Henson,
Georgiain 2000, based on reportsfrom Alabama and SouthCarolina reported 57,377tons of waste shipped to7/1/99 - 6/30/2000, morethan double the amount two18% from South Carolina 5% from TennesseeGeorgia Dept. of NaturalResources,
Carolina.Georgia in 1999.years previously.20% not specified.(404) 362-4888
Hawaii does not exportN.A.Hawaii does not importN.A.Gary Siu,
HawaiiMSW. MSW.Hawaii Dept. of Health,
(808) 586-4244
65,530 tons in 1998.Washington, Oregon, and17,682 tons in 1999,OregonDean Ellert,
IdahoMontana.according to Oregon.ID Division ofEnvironmental Quality,
(208) 373-0416
iki/CRS-RL310513,145,821 tons in 2000,according to five1.5 million tons of MSW toIndiana (CRS estimate based1,541,913 tons in 1999.(Data converted from cubic75% from Missouri,17% from Iowa, Ellen Gambach, Illinois EPA
g/wneighboring States, a declineon Indiana data); 904,000yards by CRS.) 4% from Indiana and(217) 782-9288
s.orIllinoisof 650,000 tons since 1998.tons to Wisconsin; 640,000 4% from Wisconsin.
leaktons to Michigan. Small
amounts elsewhere.
://wikiFour receiving states,Michigan (553,762 tons),1,439,431 tons of MSW in95% from Illinois,Michelle Weddle,
httpMichigan, Ohio, Kentucky,Ohio (158,764 tons),2000, a decline of 742,000 3% from Michigan.IN Department of
and Illinois, report receivingKentucky (134,215 tons),tons in the past two years. Environmental
a total of 908,418 tons fromIllinois (61,677 tons).Indiana also importedManagement,
Indiana. Indiana reported172,410 tons of other waste(317) 233-3834

exports of 289,856 tons in(principally C&D waste and
Indiana2000, but the state notes thatthis total does not provide a“special” waste) in 2000, adecline from 639,000 tons in
complete picture of Indiana1999.
exports since it only includes
waste exported by transfer
stations. It does not include
waste taken directly out of
state by haulers.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
Iowa reports 380,000 tons ofAbout 2/3 goes to Illinois;485,000 tons in FY 2000MinnesotaTammie Krausman,
exports in FY 2000 (7/1/99 -the remainder goes mostly to(7/1/99 - 6/30/2000).Iowa Dept. of Natural
Iowa6/30/2000).Nebraska and Missouri.Resources,
(515) 281-8382
Kansas reported 43,000 tonsMissouri and Oklahoma.434,000 tons in FY 2000Mostly from Missouri. Kent Foerster,
Kansasof exports in FY 2000(7/1/99-6/30/2000).(7/1/99 - 6/30/2000).Some from southeastNebraska and Oklahoma.Kansas Dept. of Health andEnvironment
(785) 296-1540
No reporting system forIndiana, 19,892 tons; 626,290 tons in 2000.45% from Ohio,Derek Gould,
exports, but 2 neighboringOhio, 74,279. Tennessee21% from Indiana,KY Department for
Kentuckystates reported receiving94,171 tons from KY inand Illinois also receivewaste from Kentucky.17% from W. Va., 16% from Tennessee.Environmental Protection(502) 564-6716 x671
iki/CRS-RL310512000. Exports to Indiana
g/wdeclined by almost 90%.
leakNo reporting system forMississippi.No tracking system. TheN.A.Dennis Duszynski,
exports, but Mississippistate is not believed to be aLA Dept. of Environmental
://wikiLouisianareports that it received300,000 tons of waste fromwaste importer.Quality, (225) 765-0249
httpLouisiana in 1999.
50,862 tons in 1999, plus19,000 tons to New 164,527 tons of MSW in74% from Massachusetts;George MacDonald,
Maine40,412 tons of constructionand demolition (C & D)Brunswick (Canada); mostof the rest to New1999.the rest from NewHampshire.ME Department ofEnvironmental Protection,
waste.Hampshire.(207) 287-5759
Maryland reported1,427,585 tons to Virginia;62,246 tons in 1999. InPennsylvania and WestFrank Diller,
1,368,811 tons of MSW in359,596 tons toaddition, the state importedVirginia. C & D wasteMD Department of the
1999, plus 145,866 tons ofPennsylvania.469,944 tons of constructioncomes from 6 states.Environment,
Marylandincinerator ash. Receivingand demolition waste.(410) 631-4143

states, which have reported
data for 2000, reported
receiving 1,791,103 tons.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
984,558 tons of MSW in39% to New Hampshire;29,412 tons of MSW in73% from Connecticut,Brian Holdridge,
1999; Mass. also exported17% to Virginia;1999. 224,165 tons of other17% from New Hampshire. Mass. Dept. of
Massachusetts215,000 tons of other waste12% each to Ohio and waste (mostly ash andEnvironmental Protection,
(mostly construction andMaine;construction and demolition(617) 292-5578
demolition).10% to NY.waste).
No tracking system forOhio (54%) 2,840,338 tons, 10/1/99-Ontario, Canada (45%),Lynn Dumroese,
exports, but two neigh-Indiana (46%).9/30/2000, an increase ofIllinois (23%),Michigan Dept. of
Michiganboring states reportednearly 1,000,000 tons in theIndiana (20%), Environmental Quality,
85,210 tons from Michiganlast year. (Data convertedOhio (7%), (517) 373-4738
in 2000.from cubic yards by CRS). Wisconsin (5%).
619,592 tons in 1999, a 38%Iowa (432,837 tons), Imports were less than 1,000N.A.Jim Chiles,
Minnesotaincrease over 1998.Wisconsin (131,912 tons),North Dakota (54,460 tons),tons.Minnesota Pollution ControlAgency,
iki/CRS-RL31051South Dakota (383 tons).(651) 296-7273
s.orMay be small amounts toTennessee and Arkansas.449,821 tons in 1999.Louisiana accounted forMark Williams,
leakTennessee and Arkansas. about 300,000 tons, AlabamaMississippi Department of
Mississippiabout 75,000 tons, and theEnvironmental Quality,
://wikirest comes mostly from theMemphis, Tennessee area.(601) 961-5171
1,792,753 tons in 2000.Illinois (70%) and Kansas183,042 tons in 2000Illinois (54%)Dennis Hansen,
About 40% of this is(28%) were the main(includes industrial and C &Arkansas (29%)Mo. Department of Natural
Missouriestimated to be C & D wastedestinations. D waste).Iowa (15%)Resources
or industrial waste sent to(573) 751-5401
MSW landfills.
Small amounts.North Dakota31,693 tons in 2000.Mostly from Idaho. SmallerPat Crowley,
amounts from North DakotaMT Department of Health
Montanaand Wyoming (Yellowstoneand Environmental
Park). Sciences,
(406) 444-5294

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
Nebraska does not collectKansas, Colorado, andNebraska does not collect98% from Iowa; the restKeith Powell,
annual data on wasteWyoming.annual data on wastefrom South Dakota.Nebraska Dept. of
exports. A one-time surveyimports, either. A one-timeEnvironmental Quality,
Nebraskareported 18,203 tons insurvey reported 122,500 tons(402) 471-4210
1997. Probably hasn’t beenin 1997. Probably hasn’t
much change since then,been much change since
according to the state.then, according to the state.
NoneN.A.541,400 tons in 2000,California. Minute amountsLes Gould,
according to preliminaryfrom Arizona and Utah.NV Division of
Nevadastate estimates.Environmental Protection,
(775) 687-4670,
ext. 3018
iki/CRS-RL3105164,000 tons in 1999.Maine and Massachusetts.538,700 tons in 1999, down34% from 1997. Imports arePrimarily Massachusetts. Small amounts fromPierce Rigrod,NH Department of
g/wNew Hampshireexpected to continueVermont and Maine.Environmental Services,
s.ordeclining as a result of a(603) 271-3713
leakpermit modification.
://wiki2,508,000 tons in 1999, adecrease of nearly 1,000,000Mostly to Pennsylvania;about 6% to Ohio.836,154 tons in 1999. Mostgoes to the Essex CountyNew York (78%),Pennsylvania (14%),Ray Worob,NJ Department of
httptons compared to 1998. incinerator.Connecticut (6%).Environmental Protection,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and(609) 984-6903
New JerseyVirginia, which have data
for the year 2000, report
receiving 4,158,060 tons of
MSW from New Jersey in
No MSW exports.N.A.241,771 tons in 1999, 80%Mostly from El Paso, Texas. John O’Connell,
New Mexicoof which is MSW. The restis mostly maquiladora wasteSmall amounts from otherareas of Texas and Mexico. New Mexico EnvironmentalDepartment,
from Mexican border areas.(505) 827-2385

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
5,610,000 tons in 2000,Primarily Pennsylvania (4.7539,000 tons in 2000. May441,000 tons came fromGerard Wagner,
according to New York.million tons), Virginia (1include industrial and C & DMassachusetts. Vermont,NY State Department of
New York Four importing states reporta total of 6,807,167 tonsmillion tons), New Jersey(648,000 tons), and Ohiowaste.Connecticut, and NewJersey were the other mainEnvironmental Conservation(518) 402-8692
from New York.(466,000 tons).sources.
1,106,897 tons from JulyMostly to South Carolina41,840 tons, July 1999-June96% from Virginia; thePaul Chrisman,
North Carolina1999 to June 2000, a 10-foldincrease since FY 1996.and Virginia.2000.remainder from SouthCarolina.NC Dept. of Environmentand Natural Resources,
(919) 733-0692 x254
Small amounts.South Dakota and Montana.The state has no reportingMinnesotaSteve Tillotson.
system, but MinnesotaND Dept. of Health,
iki/CRS-RL31051North Dakotareports 54,460 tons of MSWexported to North Dakota in(701) 328-5166
g/w 1999.
leak1,039,876 tons in 1999, aPrimarily to Michigan and1,774,134 tons received atNew York (26%),Andrew Booker,
17% increase from 1998,Kentucky. Lesser amountsMSW landfills in 2000, aPennsylvania (24%), Ohio Environmental
://wikiOhioand nearly triple the amountin Indiana, West Virginia,and Pennsylvania. 63% increase over 1997, buta decline of 50% from theNew Jersey (13%),Indiana (9%).Protection Agency,(614) 728-5355
httppeak in 1989. May includeSmaller amounts from 28
some C & D and industrialother states.
Oklahoma does not requireN.A.Landfills in Oklahoma areN.A.John Roberts,
reporting, and does notnot required to report wasteOklahoma Dept. of
Oklahomabelieve it exports more thanimports, but “there’s not allEnvironmental Quality,
incidental amounts fromthat much” import.(405) 702-5100
small towns near the border.
Michigan reports receivingMichiganNone.N.A.Bruce Pope,
1,277,822 tons of wasteOntario Ministry of
Ontario, Canadafrom Ontario, 10/1/99 -Environment and Energy,
9/30/2000, an increase of(416) 325-4420

80% in the last year.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
17,682 tons in 1999.Idaho1,239,579 tons in 1999.Mostly from Washington. Judy Henderson,
OregonAbout 6% from California.OR Dept. of EnvironmentalQuality,
(503) 229-5521
553,570 tons in 2000,77% to Ohio,9,764,147 tons of MSW in48% from New York,Sally Lohman,
according to neighboring22% to New Jersey, 2000, plus 2,473,843 tons of40% from New Jersey,PA Department of
states. 1% to Virginia.industrial waste, C&D 4% from Connecticut,Environmental Protection,
waste, ash, sludge and 4% from Maryland,(717) 787-7382
asbestos. MSW imports 2% from Massachusetts,
Pennsylvaniaincreased about 1.8 million 1% from D.C.
tons in 2000, and have more
than doubled since 1993,
when Pennsylvania was
iki/CRS-RL31051already, by far, the largestnet importer.
s.or146,950 tons in 1999.Connecticut andNo imports.N.A.Robert Schmidt,
leakMassachusetts were theRI Department of
principal exportEnvironmental
://wikiRhode Islanddestinations. Some wastealso goes to PennsylvaniaManagement,(401) 222-2797 x7260
httpand Ohio.
Not a major exporter:Georgia862,925 tons, 7/1/98 -Mostly from North Carolina;Celeste Duckett,
according to the state,6/30/99, an increase ofsome from Georgia.SC Dept. of Health and
South Carolina57,377 tons of MSW werenearly 30%. Environmental Control,
exported in FY 1999 (7/1/98(803) 896-4226
- 6/30/99).
The state does not trackNorth Dakota, Nebraska,The state does not trackN.A.Jim Wente,
South Dakotaexports, but believes smallamounts are exported fromand Wyoming.imports.SD Dept. of Environmentand Natural Resources,
some border communities.(605) 773-3153
Neighboring states reportedKentucky (97,178 tons)Latest data, for FY 199834% from Virginia,Buddy Kelly,
151,229 tons of MSW fromGeorgia (26,547 tons)(8/1/97 - 7/31/98), showed32% from Indiana,TN Dept. of Environment
TennesseeTennessee.Virginia (27,504 tons).imports of 297,081 tons, an30% from Kentucky.and Conservation
increase of 79% from the(615) 532-0150

previous year.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
The state assumes that little99% of the total went toTexas imported 46,611 tons10,362 tons from Mexico;Lynne Haase,
has changed since 1998,New Mexico, 1% toof MSW in 1999.the remainder from 7 states.Texas Natural Resource
Texaswhen 395,067 tons wereexported. New MexicoLouisiana.Conservation Commission, (512) 239-6088
reports lesser amounts
About 1,000 tons of MSWNevada.66,000 tons in 2000. TheN.A.Jeff Emmons,
goes from Wendover, Utah,state also imported 299,000Utah Dept. of
Utahto Wendover, Nevada. There may also be sometons of non-hazardousindustrial waste.Environmental Quality(801) 538-6748
small amount of exports
from Indian reservations.
iki/CRS-RL3105188,350 tons in 1999. Primarily New Hampshireand New York.No imports.N.A.Julie Hackbarth,VT Dept. of Environmental
g/wVermont Conservation,
s.or(802) 241-3446
No export reporting system. Tennessee and North3,891,320 tons in 2000, plus37% from Maryland,Kathy Frahm,
://wikiVirginiaBased on reports fromsurrounding states, additional 580,226 tonsof non-MSW. Imports27% from New York,22% from the District of VA Department ofEnvironmental Quality,
httpestimates 150,000 tons ofdeclined more than 200,000 Columbia,(804) 698-4376
exports.tons in 2000.12% from North Carolina.
832,421 tons in 1999.Oregon243,292 tons in 1999.About 60% from California;Ellen Caywood,
Washingtonthe rest from Canada,Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska.Washington Dept. ofEcology
(360) 407-6132
No tracking system. Kentucky (40%),250,264 tons in 1998, aboutN.A.Bill Rheinlander,
Kentucky, Ohio,Ohio (30%)the same as in 1997, but aWV Division of
West VirginiaPennsylvania, and VirginiaPennsylvania (17%),69% decline from its peak inEnvironmental Protection,
reported 305,257 tons fromVirginia (13%).1992.(304) 558-4253
250,776 tons in 1999,Michigan (187,825 tons)1,067,926 tons in 2000. 85% from Illinois,Wayne Ringquist,
Wisconsinaccording to threeneighboring states.Illinois (61,677 tons)Indiana (1,274 tons).15% from Minnesota.WI Dept. of NaturalResources
(608) 267-7557

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
No tracking system. AN.A.The state does not trackN.A.Bob Doctor,
couple of communities inwaste imports. Very littleWY Department of
Wyomingvery remote areas may shipwaste out of or into the state,waste is believed to beimported.Environmental Quality,(307) 473-3468

but very little waste is
believed to be exported.