Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-2009

Emergency Funding for Agriculture:
A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations,
Updated November 26, 2008
Ralph M. Chite
Section Research Manager
Resources, Science, and Industry Division

Emergency Funding for Agriculture:
A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations,
From FY1989 through FY2009 (to date), 36 appropriations, authorization, or
farm disaster acts added approximately $61.8 billion in supplemental funding for
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service,
which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Approximately
$47.8 billion, or just under 80% of the total amount, was provided within the last 10
Since FY1989, a large portion ($43.7 billion) of the total supplemental funding
has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: “market loss
payments” ($21.4 billion, all from FY1999 to FY2001) to compensate for low farm
commodity prices, and crop disaster payments ($22.34 billion) paid to any producer
who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $18.1
billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including livestock feed
assistance programs, farm conservation programs, specialty crop assistance, farm
loans, and non-farm USDA programs such as overseas food aid, food and nutrition
programs, and rural development and housing assistance.
In recent years, virtually all of the supplemental spending has been provided
under an emergency designation from Congress and the Administration, meaning that
the new spending did not have to be offset with comparable reductions in other
programs. However, in some cases a portion of the supplemental is offset by
spending reductions in other programs.
Total annual funding additions in the 36 acts providing supplemental economic,
farm disaster, and other assistance through USDA programs since FY1989 are as
FY1989: $ 3.4 billionFY2000: $ 14.8 billion
FY1990: $ 1.5 billionFY2001: $ 11.3 billion
FY1991: $ 0FY2002: $ 0.6 billion
FY1992: $ 1.0 billionFY2003: $ 3.6 billion
FY1993: $ 1.9 billionFY2004: $ 0.2 billion
FY1994: $ 3.1 billionFY2005: $ 3.8 billion
FY1995: $ 0.6 billionFY2006: $ 2.2 billion
FY1996: $ 0.1 billionFY2007: $ 3.65 billion
FY1997: $ 0.5 billionFY2008: $ 2.75 billion
FY1998: $ 0.2 billionFY2009: $ 0.40 billion
FY1999: $ 6.6 billion
Grand Total, FY1989-FY2009 (to date): $61.8 billion

Table 1. History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2009..........1

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief
History of Supplemental Appropriations,
Table 1. History of Supplemental Appropriations,
ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
Disaster AssistanceAuthorized USDA’s Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to use
Act of 1988its authority to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, in order to provide
direct disaster payments to farmers for 1988 crop losses using
(P.L. 100-387, payment formula in this statute. Permanently authorized livestock
August 11, 1988)feed assistance programs. No specific appropriation made, nor
limitations placed on payment formulas in the act. CCC outlays in
FY1989 were $3.386 billion for direct disaster payments under
this act.
Disaster AssistanceAuthorized the CCC to provide disaster payments to farmers for
Act of 1989 1989 crop losses. Payments were not direct cash payments, but
instead were made in the form of certificates redeemable for
(P.L. 101-82, Government-owned grain. No specific appropriation, nor
August 14, 1989)limitation placed on formula payment.
The CCC ultimately provided $1.48 billion in commodity
certificates in FY1990 under this act.
Dire EmergencyAuthorized the CCC to make $1.75 billion in direct disaster
Supplementalpayments using a payment formula authorized by the 1990 farm
Appropriations forbill (P.L. 101-624). Of this total amount, $995 million was
Natural Disasters and available for 1990 or 1991 crop losses. The remaining $755
Operation Desertmillion was made available for 1990, 1991 or 1992 crop losses,
Shield/Desert Storm pending a request as an emergency designation by the
Administration, which was later granted. $100 million of the total
(P.L. 102-229,was reserved for program crops planted in 1991 for harvest in
December 12, 1991)1992.
Dire EmergencyIn response to Hurricane Andrew and other disasters, P.L. 102-368
Supplementalprovided a total of $1.093 billion in farm and nonfarm disaster
Appropriations Act,assistance through various USDA programs, including:
1992; Hurricane
Andrew, Typhoon$382 million in farm disaster payments immediately to supplement
Omar, Hurricanethe $755 million made available by P.L. 102-229 (see above).
Iniki, etc.Authorized an additional $100 million for disaster payments,
pending a separate budget request by the President (later granted in
(P.L. 102-368,1993).

September 23, 1992)

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
Also included in the total is $711.5 million in other USDA-
administered emergency assistance, including:
— $400 million in additional food stamp funding for
disaster areas;
— $72.3 million for various rural development loan and
grant programs, particularly for repair and rehabilitation
of water and waste systems damaged by natural
— $62 million for emergency watershed programs (repair
damages to waterways and watersheds near farmland);
— $48 million for the Tree Assistance Program (cost-
sharing program to replant tree stands destroyed by a
— $43.285 million in loan subsidy for USDA to make
$162.5 million in additional emergency disaster loans;
— $40.25 million for various rural housing loan and grant
— $27.5 million for the Emergency Conservation Program
(rehabilitation of farmland following a disaster);
— $15 million to restore damaged federal research
— $3.2 million for salaries and expenses to administer
emergency programs.
SupplementalThe act allowed USDA to apply the unexpended authority for
Appropriations Act ofdisaster payments (approximately $300 million) in P.L. 102-229
1993and P.L. 102-368 to make disaster payments for reductions in crop
quality caused by any natural disaster affecting a 1990 through
(P.L. 103-50, 1993 crop. Also allowed these unexpended funds to be used for
July 2, 1993)any future crop losses (1993 through 1995) associated with
Hurricane Andrew (1992).
The act also made available approximately $145 million to
various other rural development and housing programs, all of
which was offset by a comparable amount of rescissions in other
USDA programs.
EmergencyThe act provided approximately $2.7 billion in total USDA
Supplementalassistance, including $2.5 billion in farm disaster payments for
Appropriations forlosses associated with the Midwest flood of 1993, and other
Relief from the Major,agricultural disasters. Of this $2.5 billion, the act provided a
Widespread Floodingspecific appropriation of $1.050 billion immediately, another $300
in the Midwest Act ofmillion in contingent appropriations, and allowed the CCC to
1993borrow as much as necessary to fully fund the payment formula
(which later amounted to approximately $1.1 billion in additional
(P.L. 103-75, borrowing).
August 12, 1993)
Also included within the total is $60 million for Watershed and
Flood Prevention Operations; $55.4 million for rural development
programs;. $30 million for the Emergency Conservation Program;
$21.8 million for farm loan programs; $21 million for rural
housing programs; $12 million for the administration of disaster
programs; and $3.5 million for the Extension Service.

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
EmergencyEnacted in response to the major California earthquake in Jan.
Supplemental1993, the act provided $376.1 million to USDA programs,
Appropriations Act ofincluding $340.5 million for Watershed and Flood Prevention

1994Operations; $25 million for the Emergency Conservation Program;

and $1.4 million to the Extension Service. It also allowed the
(P.L. 103-211,Commodity Credit Corporation to use its borrowing authority to
February 12, 1994) fund the Tree Assistance Program for any 1993 crop year disaster.
CCC spending for 1993 TAP-eligible losses was $9.2 million,
included in the $376.1 million total. The act also allowed nursery
crops to be included in 1993 crop loss payments under P.L. 103-75
above. Approximately $200 million of the additional spending was
offset by rescissions made to various USDA programs.
Agricultural, RuralThe regular FY1995 appropriations act for agriculture required the
Development, FDA,CCC to provide such sums as may be necessary on an emergency
and Related Agenciesbasis to fully fund the disaster payment formula in the 1990 farm
Appropriations Act,bill for 1994 crop losses, including aquaculture but excluding
1995ornamental fish. It also provided payments for subsequent 1995
and 1996 orchard losses caused by a 1994 freeze. CCC outlays for
(P.L. 103-330,1994 crop losses amounted to approximately $600 million.
September 30, 1994)
Omnibus ConsolidatedIn response to Hurricanes Bertha and Marilyn, Pacific Northwest
Rescissions andflooding, Northeast blizzards and other disasters, the act provided
Appropriations Act of$129.4 million for various USDA programs, including $80.5
1996million for Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations, $30
million for the Emergency Conservation Program; $11 million for
(P.L. 104-134, rural utility grants; and $7.6 million for rural housing repair loans
April 26, 1996)and grants.
Agricultural, RuralA supplemental provision in the regular FY1997 agriculture
Development, FDA,appropriations act made available $32.244 million in loan subsidy
and Related Agenciesto support $110 million in emergency disaster farm loans.
Appropriations Act,
(P.L. 104-180,
August 6, 1996)
Omnibus ConsolidatedIn response to Hurricanes Fran and Hortense and other disasters,
Appropriations Act,the P.L. 104-208 provided $88 million for USDA flood assistance
1997programs, including $63 million for Watershed and Flood
Prevention Operations, and $25 million for the Emergency
(P.L. 104-208,Conservation Program.
September 30, 1996)
1997 EmergencyThe act made available $393 million in supplemental USDA
Supplementalassistance including, $166 million for Watershed and Flood
Appropriations Act forPrevention Operations; $76 million for the WIC program; $70
Recovery frommillion for the Emergency Conservation Program; $50 million for
Natural Disasters, and the Livestock Indemnity Program, (which pays farmers a certain
for Overseas Peace-amount for each head of cattle lost to a disaster); $18 million in
keeping Efforts, Inclu-loan subsidy to support $70 million in additional USDA
ding Those in Bosniaemergency disaster loans; $9 million for the Tree Assistance
Program; and $4 million for loan subsidies and grants for the Rural
(P.L. 105-18, Utilities Assistance Program, for the repair of water and sewer
June 12, 1997)systems following a natural disaster.

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions

1998 SupplementalIn response to El Nino-driven storms and other natural disasters,

Appropriations andthe act provided a total of $159.8 million in emergency farm
Rescissions Actspending, including $80 million for the Watershed and Flood
Prevention Program; $34 million for the Emergency Conservation
(P.L. 105-174, Program; $14 million for the Tree Assistance Program; $21 million
May 1, 1998)in loan subsidy to support $87.4 million in additional emergency
disaster loans; $4 million for the Livestock Indemnity Program;
and $6.8 million for dairy farmer disaster payments.
Approximately $47.5 million in rescissions to various other USDA
programs was made to offset a portion of the cost of new spending.
OmnibusProvided a total of $5.893 billion in emergency supplemental
Appropriations Act ofappropriations to USDA, primarily for assistance to farmers for

1999natural disasters and low farm commodity prices, including:

(P.L. 105-277, — $3.057 billion in “market loss payments” made to grain,
October 21, 1998)cotton and dairy farmers in response to low farm
commodity prices;
— $1.3 billion in farm disaster payments for 1998 crop
— $575 million in disaster payments for multi-year crop
— $400 million in premium discounts for growers of a

1999 crop who purchase crop insurance coverage;

— $200 million for livestock feed assistance (for livestock
farmers who lost on farm feed to a disaster);
— $50 million in Alaska salmon assistance;
— $40 million for USDA Farm Service Agency salaries to
administer various farm assistance programs;
— $31.4 million in loan subsidy to support a variety of
existing direct and guaranteed farm loan programs;
— $27 million for recourse loans to mohair growers;
— $25 million for Food for Progress, an overseas food aid
— $1 million for honey recourse loans.
1999 EmergencyProvided nearly $723 million in emergency assistance for USDA
Supplementalprograms, including:
Appropriations Act
— $149.2 million in emergency food assistance to the
(P.L. 106-31, Balkans through the P.L. 480 program;
May 21, 1999) — $145 million for USDA’s Section 32 program, to help
stabilize farm prices of surplus commodities;
— $105.6 million in loan subsidy to support additional
loans of $1.095 billion for various USDA farm loan
— $95 million for Watershed and Flood Prevention;
— $70 million for the Livestock Assistance Program to
reimburse farmers for the loss of on-farm feed to a
— $42.75 million in salaries and expenses of USDA’s
Farm Service Agency, for administering emergency

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
— $32 million for various rural development programs in
response to a hurricane in Puerto Rico;
— $28 million for the Emergency Conservation Program;
— $28 million for Conservation Reserve Program technical
— $20 million for migrant and seasonal farm worker
— $3 million for livestock indemnity payments.
Agricultural, RuralProvided $8.7 billion in FY2000 emergency funding for USDA
Development, Foodprograms in response to low farm commodity prices and various
and Drugnatural disasters, including:
Administration, and
Related Agencies — $6.5 billion in “market loss” payments to compensate
Appropriations Act,growers of specific farm commodities for low market
FY2000prices including $5.5 billion to grains and cotton; $475
million to oilseeds; $328 million to tobacco; $125
(P.L. 106-78, million for dairy; and $42 million for peanuts;
October 22, 1999) — $1.2 billion in disaster payments for 1999 crop losses;
— $400 million in premium discounts for producers
purchasing crop insurance for a 2000 year crop (and
additional administrative costs of $250 million);
— $200 million in livestock feed assistance;
— an estimated $201 million for the cotton Step-2 export
competitiveness program;
— one-year extension of the dairy price support program;
— temporary authority for honey and mohair recourse
loans (no additional costs expected).
ConsolidatedProvided $577 million to supplement several emergency programs
Appropriations Act forinitially funded by P.L. 106-78 (see above), for relief from
FY2000Hurricane Floyd in North Carolina, and for other purposes,
including $186 million in additional farm disaster payments;
(P.L. 106-113,$178.6 million in loan subsidy to support $2.5 billion in additional
November 29, 1999)USDA farm loan programs; $80 million for the Watershed and
Flood Prevention Program; $50 million for the Emergency
Conservation Program; $25.6 million in rural housing loan and
grant funds; $22 million in miscellaneous disaster assistance for
Oregon (flood) and Florida (citrus canker); $20 million for the
Noninsured Assistance Program; $10 million in additional
livestock feed assistance; $2.8 million in additional tobacco
Agriculture RiskTitle II provided a total of $7.14 billion in emergency farm
Protection Act of 2000assistance ($5.5 billion in FY2000 and $1.64 billion in FY2001),
mostly in direct payments to growers of various commodities to
(P.L. 106-224, compensate for low farm commodity prices.
June 20, 2000)
For FY2000: $5.5 billion in market loss payments to growers of
grains and cotton, similar to those made in P.L.106-78 above.
For FY2001:
— $997 million in direct market loss payments, including

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
$500 million to oilseed growers; $340 million for
tobacco; $100 million for cottonseed; $47 million for
peanuts; $10 million for wool & mohair.
— A total of $301 million in assistance to fruit and
vegetable growers, including $200 million in purchases
of commodities in surplus during the 1998 and 1999
crop years, and $25 million in compensation for various
crop diseases.
Other FY2001 crop provisions allow:
— a producer to receive a loan deficiency payment (LDP)
if the land is grazed rather than harvested in 2001 (cost
of $43 million);
— certain previously ineligible grain and cotton growers to
receive a 2000 crop-year LDP ($35 million); and honey
growers to receive recourse loans for the 2000 crop ($7
The balance of FY2000-FY2001 spending includes $110 million
for nutrition programs; $51 million for research programs; $50
million for conservation programs; $24 million for crop and
pasture flood compensation; $15 million in emergency loans for
seed producers; $15 million for agricultural marketing programs;
$13 million for animal disease control programs; and $5 million
for boll weevil eradication loans.
EmergencyProvided $210.4 million to USDA programs, primarily for
Supplemental Act foradditional assistance to farm and rural areas affected by a series of
FY2000 (Title II of the 1999 hurricanes and by 2000 wildfires in the Southwest, including
Military Construction$81 million in crop loan forgiveness for North Carolina producers
Appropriations Act,whose collateral for a 1999 marketing loan was destroyed by a
2001) hurricane; $77.6 million for the Farm Service Agency for
temporary staff to administer emergency farm programs, for civil
(P.L. 106-246, rights cases, and for information technology expenses; $29.5
July 13, 2000)million for various USDA rural housing loan and grant programs
for hurricane aftermath; $10 million for the Emergency
Conservation Program and $4 million for Watershed and Flood
Prevention Operations for damage caused by wildfires in the
Southwest; and $7 million for the peanut price support program to
cover 1999 program losses, which must eventually be repaid by
Agricultural, RuralAuthorized an estimated $4.0 billion in FY2001 supplemental
Development, FoodUSDA spending, including the following major provisions:
and Drug — $1.8 billion in natural disaster payments for 2000 crop
Administration, andlosses;
Related Agencies — $675 million in income assistance payments to dairy
Appropriations Act,farmers;
FY2001 — $500 million in livestock disaster assistance;
— $220 million for various rural development loan and
(P.L. 106-387, grant programs;
October 28, 2000) — $138 million to apple and potato growers for crop losses
and low prices;

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
— $117 million to increase farmer enrollment in the
Wetlands Reserve Program;
— $110 million for the Emergency Watershed Program;
— $80 million for the Emergency Conservation Program;
— $77 million for various crop diseases;
— $53 million in tobacco assistance;
— $50 million for FSA to administer emergency programs
— $40 million for conservation technical assistance;
— $40 million for a modification of food stamp eligibility;
— $20 million each for various forms of assistance for
honey, wool and mohair, cranberry growers, and
California fruit growers.
SupplementalProvides $65.5 million in various forms of assistance, including
Appropriations Act,$35.5 million for Watershed and Flood Prevention programs in
2001Florida, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Texas and Wisconsin; $20 million
for farmers in the Klamath Basin region affected by the
(P.L. 107-20, unavailability of irrigation water; $5 million for the Animal and
July 24, 2001)Plant Health Inspection Service to guard against the threat of foot
and mouth disease, mad cow disease and other foreign animal
diseases; $3 million to enforce the Animal Welfare Act and
humane slaughter practices; and $2 million to assist Yakima Basin
farmers in Washington state.
“To respond to theProvides a total of $5.5 billion in emergency FY2001 income
continuing economicassistance to farmers, as permitted by the FY2002 budget
crisis adverselyresolution:
affecting American
agricultural — Total direct payments of $5.33 billion to supplement the
producers”income of growers of various crops including —
(FY2001 Supplemental$4.622 billion to grain and rice farmers; $423.51 million
Authorization forfor oilseeds; $129 million for tobacco; $84.7 million for
Agriculture)cottonseed; $54.21 million for peanuts; and $16.94
million for wool and mohair.
(P.L. 107-25, — Total assistance of $159.4 million is provided to
August 13, 2001)growers of specialty crops (primarily fruits and
vegetables). This includes base grants of $500,000 per
state and $1 million for Puerto Rico, for a total of $26
million. An additional $133.4 million in specialty crop
assistance is provided to the 50 states in proportion to
the value of specialty crop production in the state to
national value of specialty crop production.
— $10 million to make grants to states to pay the costs
related to the processing, transportation and distribution
of commodities for the Emergency Food Assistance
Program (EFAP).
Making emergencyAuthorized a total of $40 billion in emergency supplemental
supplementalfunding government-wide to recover from the September 11
appropriations forterrorist attacks and to combat terrorism. Of the first $20 billion
FY2001, in response tothat was made immediately available, $95 million was allocated by
the September 11,the President to USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service for P.L. 480

2001 terrorist attacksTitle II grants to provide food aid to Afghanistan to mitigate the

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
(P.L. 107-38,impact of the ongoing conflict and drought. The second $20
September 18, 2001)billion could be obligated only when enacted in a subsequent
emergency appropriations bill. (See P.L. 107-117 below for
USDA’s portion of the second $20 billion.)
Department of DefenseAs required by P.L. 107-38 above, the obligation of the second $20
and Emergencybillion of the $40 billion authorized by P.L. 107-38 required
Supplementalenactment of a subsequent act defining the use of the funds. P.L.
Appropriations for107-117 authorized $367 million of the funds for USDA programs
Recovery from andprimarily to enhance security at the Department and its research
Response to Terroristfacilities, including $119.1 million to the Animal and Plant Health
Attacks on the UnitedInspection Service; $113 million to the Agricultural Research
States Act, 2002Service; $80.9 million to the Secretary’s office; and $15 million to
the Food Safety Inspection Service. Also included is $39 million
(P.L. 107-117, for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infant
January 10, 2002)and Children (WIC) in response to the downturn in the national
Making supplementalThe supplemental provisions in this act provided governmentwide
appropriations forfunds to combat terrorism and for other purposes, of which a
further recovery fromportion was contingent upon a request and emergency declaration
and response tofrom the President. Subsequent to enactment, the President stated
terrorist attacks on thethat he would not provide such a request and designation, hence
United States for themaking these contingent funds unavailable. For USDA programs
fiscal year ending(excluding the Forest Service), the act provided $212 million in
September 30, 2002,non-contingent funding, including $94 million for Watershed and
and for other purposesFlood Prevention Operations; $75 million for the WIC program;
$25 million for security at the Ames, Iowa animal disease research
(P.L. 107-206, facility; $10 million in agricultural assistance to producers along
August 2, 2002)the Rio Grande due to failure of Mexico to deliver water under a
current treaty; and $8 million to fund local television loan
guarantees in rural areas. Another $148 million in funding for
USDA programs required a presidential request and emergency
declaration which was not given. Hence, these funds were not
made available.
ConsolidatedThis measure contained an estimated $3.1 billion in farm disaster
Appropriationsassistance, in response to severe drought and other natural disasters
Resolution, FY2003affecting 2001 and 2002 farm production. The full cost of these
provisions was offset by a $3.7 billion limitation placed on future
(P.L. 108-7, mandatory spending (FY2003-2013) for the Conservation Security
February 20, 2003)Program.
The $3.1 billion in agricultural assistance included:
— an estimated $2.1 billion in direct disaster payments for
crop losses in either 2001 or 2002, but not both years;
— direct payments to livestock growers to compensate
them for 2001 or 2002 feed and forage losses, including
an estimated $100 million in additional funding for the
Livestock Compensation Program (LCP) and $250
million for the Livestock Assistance Program;
— $250 million for the Section 32 program, to partially
reimburse the account for funds that were used for the

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
— $70 million for the Farm Service Agency to implement
disaster assistance and ongoing farm commodity
— $60 million in disaster payments to sugar beet producers
for either 2001 or 2002 crop losses;
— an estimated $60 million in payments to sugarcane
producers and processors for hurricane losses in 2002;
— an estimated $54 million to compensate 2002 tobacco
producers for losses associated with quota reductions,
pests and diseases;
— $50 million for assistance to producers and first
handlers of the 2002 cottonseed crop;
— $18.2 million to compensate Florida citrus growers
whose trees were quarantined for citrus canker after
September 30, 2001;
— $15 million for bovine tuberculosis eradication;
— $10 million in assistance to producers along the Rio
Grande, due to failure of Mexico to deliver water under
a current treaty; and
— $2 million to compensate New Mexico farmers for
losses caused by a Forest Service misapplication of
Emergency WartimeAuthorized an estimated $79 billion government-wide, primarily to
Supplementalcover the costs of military operations in Iraq, relief for Iraq and
Appropriations Act,Afghanistan, and homeland security protection. Within the total

2003was $479 million for USDA programs, including:

$369 million in additional funding for P.L. 480 Title II foreign
(P.L. 108-11, food aid assistance (commodity donations). Of the $369 million,
April 16, 2003)the act reserved $69 million to partially replenish the Bill Emerson
Humanitarian Trust (a grain reserve used to help fulfill food aid
commitments when supplies are short); and
$110 million for the Agricultural Research Service’s National
Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa, to modernize its facilities
and to bolster security in response to potential threats to the
domestic food supply.
Legislative BranchAn emergency provision was attached to the FY2004 legislative
Appropriations Act,branch appropriations act making available $9.7 million for the
2004Tree Assistance Program, exclusively to Michigan, in response to
an outbreak of fire blight (a bacterial tree disease).
(P.L. 108-83,
July 1, 2003)
ConsolidatedTitle H of this omnibus measure provided $225 million in
Appropriations Act,emergency USDA assistance exclusively to Southern California in
2004response to wildfires in the region, including $150 million for the
Emergency Watershed Protection Program, $50 million for the
(P.L. 108-199, Forest Service for fire management and mitigation activities, $12.5
January 23, 2004)million for the Tree Assistance Program, $12 million for the
Emergency Conservation Program, and $500,000 for the Livestock
Indemnity Program. All of this emergency spending was offset by
a $225 million rescission from the Federal Emergency
Management Agency.

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
Division H also deleted the provision in P.L. 108-7 (see above)
that placed a $3.7 billion limitation on spending for the
Conservation Security Program over 10 years (FY2003-FY2013),
which effectively allows full funding (such sums as necessary) for
the program.
Military ConstructionDivision B of this appropriations act provided a total of $14.5
Appropriations andbillion in supplemental spending in response to a series of four
Emergency Hurricanelate-summer hurricanes that struck the southern U.S., and for
Supplementallosses associated with a prolonged drought in the western states,
Appropriations Act,among other disasters. Of the total provided, a CBO-estimated $3.5
2005billion was for various agricultural programs. A portion of the
agricultural spending was offset by placing a cap on mandatory
(P.L. 108-324, spending for the Conservation Security Program beginning in
October 13, 2004)FY2008, which is estimated to save $2.86 billion over a multi-year
Included in the $3.5 billion for agriculture was an estimated $2.84
billion that was expected to benefit various regions that
experienced multiple years of drought and a late summer frost. The
balance of $658 million was made available primarily for regions
that were severely affected by the series of 2004 hurricanes and
tropical storms.
Included in the $2.84 billion was an estimated:
— $2.3 billion in direct disaster payments for crop losses
in either 2003 or 2004, but not both years;
— $475 million in Livestock Assistance Program payments
for forage and feed losses in either 2003 or 2004, but
not both; and
— $35 million for the Tree Assistance Program to replant
orchards damaged or destroyed by a disaster.
Note: Prior to enactment of P.L. 108-324, USDA authorized and
implemented a new Florida Hurricane Disaster Assistance
Program to make disaster payments to Florida citrus, vegetable,
and nursery growers using existing USDA funds (estimated at
$500 million). Any producer receiving a payment under this
program is ineligible to receive a crop or tree loss payment under
P.L. 108-324.
Included in the $658 million made available primarily for
additional agricultural hurricane relief were:
— $250 million for the Emergency Watershed Protection
Program to repair waterways and watersheds affected
by any natural disaster;
— $150 million for the Emergency Conservation Program,
to clean up and restore disaster-ravaged farmland;
— a $90 million transfer to the Section 32 program, to
supplement existing funds earmarked by the Secretary

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
of Agriculture for a disaster payment program
authorized by the Secretary with existing funds, for
Florida citrus, vegetable, and nursery growers;
— $68 million for rural infrastructure through the Rural
Community Advancement Program;
— $40 million for sugarcane losses caused by a 2004
— $18 million for rural housing loans and grants;
— $10 million for dairy production losses and spoilage
caused by a 2004 hurricane;
— $10 million for cottonseed producers and first handlers;
— $10 million for private forest landowners;
— $8.5 million for pecan producers; and
— $4 million for additional Farm Service Agency
administrative expenses.
EmergencyP.L. 109-13 provided $82 billion government-wide primarily for
Supplementalongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, counter-
Appropriations Act forterrorism, reconstruction in Afghanistan, and tsunami relief. Of
Defense, the Globalthis amount, $344.5 million was for USDA programs, including
War on Terror, and$240 million for P.L. 480 Title II food aid (mainly for the Darfur
Tsunami Relief, 2005region of Sudan and other parts of Africa) and $104.5 million for
the emergency watershed protection program.
(P.L. 109-13,
May 11, 2005)
Department ofDivision B of the FY2006 defense appropriations act contained
Defense, Emergencygovernment-wide supplemental funding in the wake of Hurricanes
SupplementalKatrina and Rita and to combat the potential outbreak of pandemic
Appropriations toinfluenza. Included in the total was $1.17 billion for USDA
Address Hurricanes inprograms, of which $1.076 billion is for agricultural hurricane
the Gulf of Mexico,assistance, and $94 million is for the USDA response to avian
and Pandemicinfluenza. The $1.076 billion in hurricane aid for USDA included
Influenza Act, 2006$404 million for a new emergency forestry conservation reserve
program (to compensate private, nonindustrial forest landowners
(P.L. 109-148,who experienced large hurricane losses, for retiring their land),
December 30, 2005)$300 million for emergency watershed protection, $200 million for
the emergency conservation program, and $118 million for various
rural development (housing and infrastructure) programs. Of the
$94 million in USDA avian flu funds, $71.5 million was for its
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to bolster its
detection and response activities, $11.4 million for the Office of
the Secretary, and the balance for its research agencies.
The cost of this supplemental was offset by transferring existing
supplemental funds from FEMA, a government-wide 1% rescission
of discretionary spending, and additional rescissions to various
accounts, including $66.1 million from USDA.
(Separately, USDA made an administrative decision in early 2006
to transfer $250 million of existing funds for disaster payments to
crop, livestock , tree, and aquaculture producers, exclusively for

2005 hurricane losses.)

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
EmergencyP.L. 109-234 provided $982 million in supplemental USDA
Supplementalassistance, primarily as a second phase of agricultural assistance
Appropriations Act for(see P.L. 109-148 for the first phase) following Hurricanes Katrina
Defense, the Globaland Rita in 2005 ($632 million), and for additional overseas food
War on Terror, andaid ($350 million) through P.L. 480 Title II grants. The $632
Hurricane Recovery,million is provided exclusively to the affected Gulf states,

2006including $140 million for various livestock assistance programs,

$100 million for the emergency forestry conservation reserve
(P.L. 109-234, program, $95 million for fruits, vegetables, and nursery products,
June 15, 2006) $80 million for sugar cane losses, $35 million for the tree
assistance program, $17 million for dairy, $15 million for
cottonseed, and $8 million for aquaculture. Also included is $51
million for watershed restoration, $26 million for rural
development, and $55 million for USDA to repair its own damaged
U.S. Troop Readiness,P.L. 110-28 provided an estimated $3.65 billion in supplemental
Veterans’ Care,FY2007 funding for USDA programs, of which approximately $3
Katrina Recovery, andbillion was made available to assist farmers and ranchers who
Iraq Accountabilityexperienced severe production losses caused by a natural disaster
Appropriations Act,in 2005, 2006, or early 2007 (before February 28). Payments are
2007 limited to one of these three years. Included in the total is an
(P.L. 110-28, estimated $1.55 billion in crop disaster assistance, $1.23 billion in
May 25, 2007)livestock assistance programs (primarily the livestock
compensation program), an estimated $115 million for the
emergency forestry conservation program, $16 million in dairy loss
assistance, $16 million for the emergency conservation program,
and $16 million in emergency grants to low-income migrant
workers. The act also provided $460 million in emergency
overseas food aid (primarily for Africa and Afghanistan), restored
$115 million to the Conservation Security Program, and extended
the funding authority for the Milk Income Loss Contract program
through September 30, 2007. (For more information, see CRS
Report RS21212, Agricultural Disaster Assistance.)
ConsolidatedSection 743 of Division A of P.L. 110-161 allows all 2007 crop
Appropriations Act,and livestock losses to be eligible for disaster assistance under P.L.
2008110-28 (see above). Originally, P.L. 110-28 limited 2007 eligible
(P.L. 110-161,losses to crops planted before February 28, 2007, or livestock
December 26, 2007)losses incurred before that date. Payments are still limited to one
of the three eligible years (2005, 2006, or 2007). CBO estimates
that the 2007 extension will add $602 million to the cost of crop
and livestock assistance for 2005-2007 losses ($592 million for
crops and $10 million for livestock.) Separately, the regular
annual appropriation for WIC is supplemented by an emergency
supplemental appropriation of $400 million for FY2008.
SupplementalP.L. 110-252 provided total supplemental USDA funding of
Appropriations Act,$1.724 billion. Of this amount, $1.245 billion was provided for
2008 P.L. 480 international food aid ($850 million immediately
(P.L. 110-252, available until expended, and $395 million in FY2009 until
June 30, 2008)expended), in response to rising food prices and global food needs.
Another $479.9 million was provided to two conservation
programs for clean-up and rehabilitation following the spring and

ActMajor Agricultural Provisions
summer Midwest floods and other disasters, including $89.4
million for the emergency conservation program and $390.5
million for the emergency watershed conservation program.
Summary ofFY1989: $3.39 billion FY2000: $14.78 billion
SupplementalFY1990: $1.48 billion FY2001: $11.30 billion
Appropriations for
USDA Programs,FY1991: $0 FY2002: $579 million
FY1989-FY2008FY1992: $995 million FY2003: $3.58 billion
FY1993: $1.95 billion FY2004: $234.7 million
FY1994: $3.08 billion FY2005: $3.844 billion
FY1995: $600 million FY2006: $2.152 billion
FY1996: $129 millionFY2007: $3.653 billion
FY1997: $513 millionFY2008: $2.747 billion
FY1998: $160 millionFY2009: $395 million
FY1999: $6.62 billion
Grand Total, FY1989-FY2009 (to date): $61.78 billion