Foreign Support for the U.S.-Led War on Terrorism

CRS Report for Congress
International Support for the
U.S.-Led War on Terrorism
Updated August 8, 2003
Regina Dubey, Huda Aden, and Amanda Douglas
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
Steven A. Hildreth
Specialist in National Defense
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress

International Support for the
U.S.-Led War on Terrorism
Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, the U.S.-led
war on terrorism has evolved from ridding Afghanistan of the ruling Taliban regime
and seeking to prevent Al Qaeda from using the nation as a base for worldwide
operations to encompass confronting and defeating terrorism in a number of
countries. Many countries and international organizations have become involved in
the war on terrorism, ranging from military support and basing rights to
reconstruction assistance and diplomatic support.
This report summarizes international support for the ongoing war on terrorism,
based largely on information from open source materials regarding the diplomatic,
intelligence, law enforcement, financial, and military contributions of international
organizations and individual nations. The report does not cover international
contributions to postwar Iraq or involvement in the U.S.-led coalition in the Iraq war.
(See CRS Report RL31843, Iraq: Foreign Stances Toward U.S. Policy.)
For additional information on the U.S. and international response to terrorism,
as well as further country or regional discussions, see the CRS Terrorism Electronic
Briefing Book at:[].

Overview ........................................................1
Response ........................................................6
International Organizations......................................6
Regional Organizations.........................................7
Countries ....................................................8
Appendix: Links for Abbreviations...................................44
U.N. Action Against Terrorism..................................44
U.N. Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan............44
Counter- terrorism Resolutions and Actions by Country and Region.....45
Groups Allegedly Affiliated with Al Qaeda........................47
List of Tables
Table 1. Status of Key Al Qaeda-Linked Suspects.......................29
Table 2. Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF)
Actual and Expected Donor Contributions.........................30
Table 3. Direct Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided)
for the U.S.-Led War in Afghanistan..............................31
Table 4. Detail of Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or Provided)
for the US-Led War in Afghanistan...............................37
Table 5. Counter-Terrorism Measures Approved or Considered............39

International Support for the
U.S.-Led War on Terrorism
The U.S.-led war on terrorism1 has received broad-based international support.
Initially, this effort focused primarily on ridding Afghanistan2 of the ruling Taliban
regime and the Al Qaeda terrorist network. Today, the United States is involved in
counter-terrorism activities around the world, including places such as the Horn of34
Africa, the former Soviet state of Georgia, and Southeast Asia, particularly the
As the war on terrorism has expanded, U.S. officials have indicated there might
be “increased reliance on covert operators, as opposed to a third full-fledged military
campaign,” similar to operations in Pakistan and Yemen.5 There has also been
discussion of a possible U.S. military presence in Palestine territories and Israel to
help quell the terrorist violence that threatens the Administration’s Middle East plan6
there. Additionally, Indonesia, North Korea, Iran, and Syria are still widely cited as

1 The first U.S. action in the war on terrorism occurred on September 15, 2001, when
President Bush authorized a partial mobilization of the Reserves and National Guard for
homeland defense and civil support missions (Operation Noble Eagle). Congress then passed
a Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. 23) authorizing the use of U.S. Armed forces. President Bush
signed this into law (P.L. 107-40) on September 18, 2001. The U.S. military forces first
attacked targets in Afghanistan on October 7, 2001.
2 For further reading on U.S. policy in Afghanistan, see CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan:
Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns.
3 The Pentagon has initiated a new counter-terrorism operation under the newly formed
command of the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa. Countries covered under this
command include Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.
Approximately 2,000 U.S. armed services personnel have been deployed to camp Lemonier
Djibouti since the end of December 2002. The Task Force has not yet launched any major
combat operations.
4 According to the Washington Times on May 2, 2003, documents uncovered since the
ousting of Taliban forces have revealed an Al Qaeda-related group in Asia referred to by
U.S. intelligence as Jemaah Islamiah (JI). Discovered documents have already helped block
an attack in Singapore as well as provided information on the groups plans in pro-Western
governments of Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. JI is suspected of the
Bali nightclub bombing in 2002.
5 War on Terrorism in ‘cleanup’ phase, Washington Times, May 2, 2003.
6 “Profile: Diplomatic Efforts to Forum Truce Between Israel and Militant Palestinian

possible terrorist “hot spots.” Questions have been raised concerning North Korea
and Iran, which have existing nuclear weapons’ programs, and Syria because of
reports that Iraqi leaders may have hidden weapons of mass destruction there.7 This
report does not treat the possibility of an expanding list of “rogue” states, but instead
focuses on global support for the U.S.-led war against international terrorist
organizations such as Al Qaeda.
Some believe there is an inescapable connection between the global war on
terrorism and the recent war in Iraq. President Bush has asserted that the war against
Iraq was both a “victory” and “a crucial advance in the campaign against terror.”8
Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz further characterized the security of
Iraq as “the central battle in the global war on terror.”9 Others doubt Administration
assertions that Hussein had an extensive chemical or biological weapon’s stockpile
or a nuclear weapon program, and skepticism about Administration charges that
Hussein would have been likely to share those weapons with terrorist organizations.
Since the war in Iraq, “U.S. teams . . . are attempting to uncover linkages, if any,
between the former regime of Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda, but little evidence has
been presented thus far and many experts are skeptical that such linkage existed.”10
Although widespread international disagreement concerning the rationale for the
U.S.-led war against Iraq may have potentially threatened the level of cooperation on
the war on terrorism, this threat has not materialized in any obvious way. This report
does not, however, address the issues surrounding the justification for a U.S.-led
invasion against Iraq.11
Since the start of the war on terrorism in September 2001, the number of
terrorists attacks and fatalities linked to terrorism have declined. According to the
Patterns of Global Terrorism report,12 terrorist attacks numbered 199 in 2002,
compared to 355 in 2001. Despite some reported indications of progress, the Al
Qaeda network has apparently “regrouped” in an attempt to oppose the U.S. military
presence in Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere in the region, as well as U.S.
involvement in the Middle East peace process. With nearly an estimated third of the
senior Al Qaeda members now reportedly captured or killed as well as the loss of

6 (...continued)
Groups Continue,” NPR. All Things Considered, June 16, 2003.
7 For further reading, see CRS Issue Brief IB92075, Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral
8 White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “President Bush Announces Combat
Operations in Iraq have Ended,” May 1, 2003.
9 U.S. Department of State, Defense Link, “Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview on CBS
Face the Nation,” News Transcript, July 27, 2003.
10 For further reading, see CRS Electronic Briefing Book, Terrorism, page on “Al Qaeda”
at [].
11 For further reading, see CRS Report RS21325, Iraq: Divergent Views on Military Action,
March 31, 2003.
12 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003,
[ ht t p: / / at s/ ct / r l s / pgt r pt / 2002/ pdf ] .

Afghanistan as a base, and the assets of more than $125 million in terrorist related
financial assets frozen from 166 countries,13 Al Qaeda has proven itself capable of
adapting to changing circumstances, including replacing some key leaders and
decentralizing parts of its operations. (For further reading, see CRS Report RS21529,
Al Qaeda and the Iraq Conflict.)
In May 2003, the twin terrorist attacks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Casablanca,
Morocco (the first major incidents since the Iraq war) tempered optimism that Al
Qaeda was crippled and unable to launch major terrorist strikes.14 Before then, the
targets appeared to have shifted from high-profile Western targets to “soft” targets
in Muslim countries. The coordination of suicide attacks and car bombs also
represents an apparent tactical shift.
The war on terrorism is not only global in reach, but it is being fought by a
coalition of nations on many fronts, including diplomatic, intelligence, law
enforcement, financial, and military. Since the attacks in Morocco and Saudi Arabia,
renewed diplomatic support for the war on terrorism, especially from key allies in
the Middle East, has apparently strengthened the coalition as the threat posed by
terrorism became more evident.15
The work by U.S. and foreign intelligence and law enforcement officials have
resulted in the capture of a number of top Al Qaeda operatives, including Khalid
Sheik Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh, and Abu Zubeida. Since September 11, more
than 3,000 Al Qaeda members have reportedly been taken into custody.16 Others
implicated in the September 11 conspiracy have also been captured or arrested
abroad. (For more on the status of key Al Qaeda-linked suspects, see Table 1.)
Although the arrests of key Al Qaeda suspects have dominated recent headlines,
no less important, is the crackdown on terrorist financing. The March 2003 arrest
of Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi and the January 2003 arrest of a Yemeni cleric, Sheik
Mohammed Ali Hasan Al-Moayad, have reportedly helped disrupt the terrorist
financial machinery.17 Al-Hawsawi is believed to have set up the bank accounts used
by the September 11 hijackers, and al-Moayad has been tied to Brooklyn’s Al Farouq

13 Ibid.
14 Elliott, Michael. “Why the War on Terror Will Never End: Bomb attacks in Riyadh and
Casablanca suggest that even on the run, Al-Qeada is a resilient threat to the West,” Time,
May 18, 2003.
15 At the start of the war on terrorism, President Bush identified two coalition objectives: “to
do everything possible to eliminate the threat posed by international terrorism; to deter states
from supporting, supporting, harboring or acting complicity with international terrorist
groups.” U.S. White House. “Campaign Against Terrorism: A Coalition Update,” Report,


16 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003,
[]; See also CRS Report RS21529, Al Qaeda
and the Iraq Conflict.
17 “The Cash Squeeze on Terror Inc,” BusinessWeek Online, March 17, 2003.

mosque, which allegedly provided material support for terrorist operations.18 Adel
Batterjee, a Saudi businessman and founder of Chicago-based Benevolence
International Foundation, one of the largest Islamic charities in the U.S., continues
to be sought by investigators as is Al Qaeda’s financial mastermind, Sheik Said al-
Masri, who remains at-large.19
According to the Terrorist Asset Report,20 The U.S. Department of Treasury has
blocked the assets of terrorists “organization/related designees,”21 totaling
$6,270,521. And nearly $124 million in suspected assets have been frozen
worldwide.22 In an effort to disrupt terrorist financing, President Bush signed
Executive Order 13224 on September 23, 2001. The Order initially froze all U.S.-
based assets of 27 organizations and individuals, and further authorized the Secretary
of the Treasury or Secretary of State to add to that list. (For further reading, see CRS
Report RL31658, Terrorist Financing: The U.S. and International Response.)
On the military front, nearly 11,00023 soldiers from more than 23 nations remain
in Afghanistan in search of remnants of Taliban and Al Qaeda forces in an effort to
further disable the terrorist network.24 Other military actions in connection to the
war on terrorism continue to be conducted. Training missions and operations with
Pakistani special forces are ongoing near the Afghan/Pakistan border, as well as with
forces in the Philippines, Georgia, Yemen, and Djibouti in order to bolster command
and control operations against Al Qaeda and other international terrorists.
Despite efforts in Afghanistan, the security situation remains tenuous for
international peacekeepers. As remnants of Taliban and Al Qaeda allies have been
driven from Kabul, they have waged a “spring offensive” from the southern province
of Afghanistan against peacekeepers challenging the foreign military presence in
Afghanistan and the war in Iraq.25 ISAF Commander Norbert van Heyst has reported
increasing level of attacks throughout the country since March 2003.26

18 Ibid; United States Mission to the European Union, “Arrest of Al Qaeda Leader Seen as
Blow to Global Terrorist Network,” March 4, 2003.
19 Op.Cit.
20 U.S. Department of Treasury, Terrorist Assets Report, Calendar Year 2002, Annual
Report to Congress on Assets in the United States of Terrorist Countries and International
Terrorism Program Designee, 2003.
21 These organizations/designees include: Al Qaeda, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad,
Kahane Chair, and Taliban.
22 “The Cash Squeeze on Terror Inc,” BusinessWeek Online, March 17, 2003.
23 Exact figures on force size fluctuates between reporting sources. Troop size ranges from

10,000 to 11,000.

24 Pittman, Todd. “Top American Official to reassure Karzai of U.S. commitment to
Afghanistan.” Associated Press. May 9, 2003.
25 U.S. Target Militants Leaders in Southern Afghan Assault, Washington Post, March 21,


26 “Attacks in Afghanistan doubled in May-ISAF commander,” Agence France-Presse, July

General Akin Zorlu, formerly the Turkish commander of the ISAF,27 handed
over command to Germany and the Netherlands on February 10, 2003. Germany and
the Netherlands will remain in charge until August 2003, when NATO28 will assume
command of the ISAF. The ISAF has completed 176 projects, with another 44
reported as ongoing and 38 more under planning.29 Reconstruction efforts have
aimed at improving health, education, and the infrastructure within Kabul. One of the
most significant military efforts has been the ongoing destruction of caches of Soviet-
made missiles, which began May 12 and was expected to be completed on June 9,

2003. 30

A number of countries and organizations continue to assist in the reconstruction
of Afghanistan. At the second international donor31 meeting in March 2003, donors
pledged $1.7 billion for fiscal year 2003.32 (For a detailed summary of contributions
toward the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), see Table 2.) (For more
details on Afghanistan reconstruction, see CRS Report RL31759, Reconstruction
Assistance in Afghanistan: Goals, Priorities, and Issues for Congress.)
Since December 2002, efforts in Afghanistan have focused on diplomacy,
intelligence, law enforcement, and reconstruction assistance — supported by limited
military operations. As a result, the following country overviews do not include a
detailed discussion of earlier military efforts in Afghanistan. Instead, foreign military
support to Operation Enduring Freedom is outlined in Table 3 and Table 4.

26 (...continued)

2, 2003.

27 The last updated report (December 2002) listed 23 nations as participants to the ISAF. The
number has been varying from 18-29. Exact figures fluctuate between reporting sources.
Similarly, force size fluctuates, ranging from 4,500-5000 troops.
28 This will be the first “out of area” European mission for NATO in the history of Europe.
29 Pittman, Todd. “Top American Official to reassure Karzai of U.S. commitment to
Afghanistan,” Associated Press, May 9, 2003.
30 The cache of more than 200 Soviet missiles is the legacy of two decades under Soviet
occupation in the 1980s.
31 The 22 donors include: Bahrain, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland,
Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United
32 “Donor Pledges $1.7 billion for fiscal 2003,” Japan Economic Newswire, March 17, 2003.

This report does not list all the measures taken, but provides a fairly detailed
summary of international support related to the war on terrorism by country and
major international organizations,33 both governmental and nongovernmental. The
report will be updated as necessary.
International Organizations
United Nations (UN). The United Nations has played an important role in
establishing global standards against terrorism, including active monitoring of
nations’ implementation of those standards. The Security Council’s Counter-
terrorism Committee has been monitoring nations’ commitment and adoption of
Security Council Resolution 1373 on money laundering. Since the attacks on 9/11,
the committee received 343 status reports from nations on their progress in
implementing the United Nations resolutions on terrorism, and has offered feedback
in 243 detailed letters to states. The committee is devising a plan of action for
countries that did not submit reports.
World Bank (WB). In May 2002, the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund
(ARTF) was established, which is administered by the World Bank, and jointly
managed by UNDP, the Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and
the World Bank. The ARTF assists the Afghanistan Interim Administration in
funding reconstruction projects and covering expenses, such as salaries for civil
servants, health workers, teachers, and police. Donations have also helped clear
Afghanistan’s debt with the World Bank, making it eligible to borrow from the
World Bank for the first time since 1979. The World Bank has approved an interest-
free loan of $108 million to Afghanistan to fund the Emergency Transport
Rehabilitation Project. The project’s objective is to overcome transportation barriers
in Afghanistan, like disintegrating pavements, damaged tunnels, and collapsed34
At the Tokyo conference on reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, the World
Bank pledged a total of $570 million, parts of which will be disbursed as grants and
the rest as long-term, zero-interest credits. The International Conference on

33 From open sources, it is often difficult to determine the specific type and amounts of
assistance individual countries have provided. Some statistics in the media are reported, but
no details are available. Similarly, it is sometimes difficult to discern exactly what the
United Sates has requested of other countries, and precisely what other countries have
pledged . Secretary of Defense Ronald Rumsfeld has declined to openly describe the
support being given to the United States, stating instead that each country is doing what
they’re doing slightly differently, and have their own way of characterizing it. Secretary
Rumsfeld further said that “the mission determines that coalition, the coalition must not
determine the mission.” (Cahlink, George, “War on terrorism is history in the making,
general says,” Daily Briefing,, October 18,2001.) Some pledges of
support, therefore, continue to be ambiguous or deliberately vague.
34 DevNews Media Center, March 12, 2003.

Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan was held in Tokyo January 21-22, 2002.
Ministers and representatives from 61 countries and 21 international organizations
attended. The conference was chaired by Japan, the United States, the European
Union, and Saudi Arabia. Afghan representatives, including President Karzai,
presented their plans for the reconstruction of their country. In support of these plans,
donor countries pledged more than $1.8 billion for 2002. Some made multi-year
pledges. The cumulative amount was more than $4.5 billion. The World Bank
became the principal administrator of the trust fund, superceding the UNDP. The
United Nations and international financial institutions, such as the World Bank,
played a key role in organizing and leading the conference.35
Regional Organizations
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). In February 2003, 300
representatives from the 21 member countries of APEC renewed their commitment
to combat terrorism in a two-day meeting in Bangkok. They established a Counter-
Terrorism Task Force with a “focus on port, maritime and aviation security, and other36
means of ensuring secure trade.” The Task Force facilitates access to information
on counter-terrorism measures for member countries and encourages increased
cooperation between law enforcement officials and between the public and private
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Police Chiefs
of ASEAN nations agreed on January 22, 2003 to establish an ASEAN Anti-
Terrorism Task Force to curb terrorist activity and collaborate in response to terrorist
attacks. National task forces are expected to conduct risk assessments and facilitate
international cooperation on examination of witnesses, searching and seizing of
evidence, evacuating and treating victims, and conducting forensic examinations and
criminal investigations. (For further reading, see CRS Report RL31672, Terrorism
in Southeast Asia.)
European Union (EU). The EU is actively promoting cooperation between
member states on the intelligence front of the fight against terrorism, including the
development of a common European arrest warrant. Other efforts include devising
a common definition of terrorism and money laundering, requiring the reporting of
suspicious financial transactions, and developing a common list of terrorist
organizations. In a show of collaboration, intelligence services, judicial authorities,
and various EU agencies, including Eurojust and Europol, have been engaging in
inter-agency dialogue to better combat terrorism. Europol organized a special
antiterrorist team that will cooperate with its U.S. counterparts.37 (For further reading,
see CRS Report RL31509, Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and
Judicial Cooperation.)

35 Tokyo Conference: [].
36 Agence France Presse, February 25, 2003.
37 Europol:

The European Union continues to play a role on the reconstruction of
Afghanistan. In Tokyo, at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance
to Afghanistan, the EU pledged 2.3 billion Euros (about $2.27 billion) for
reconstruction over the period from 2002 -2006. For 2002, up to 200 million Euros
(about $197 million) have been pledged together with similar yearly contributions for
the period 2003-2006.38
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In a landmark decision on
April 16, 2003, NATO agreed to assume leadership of the International Security
Assistance Force (ISAF). For the first time, NATO will oversee a mission outside
of the North Atlantic region. NATO will succeed Germany/Netherlands in its
command of the ISAF on August 11, 2003. This command was formerly held by
Turkey and Great Britain. NATO member countries have already contributed 95
percent of the troops deployed to ISAF.39
In March 2003, NATO naval forces began monitoring merchant ships in the
Straits of Gibralter. Earlier in October 2001, NATO’s naval fleet, consisting of nine
ships from eight countries, patrolled the eastern Mediterranean, in conjunction with
a separate NATO-member fleet off the eastern coast of Africa. To date, NATO’s
maritime forces continue to escort and to monitor merchant ships and to document
suspicious activities. NATO forces have monitored more than 25,000 ships in the
Countr i es 40
Afghanistan. After decades of foreign occupation, civil strife and devastation,
Afghanistan’s major task is to rebuild its economy and infrastructure. On June 13,
2002, Hamid Karzai was elected by the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) as head of the
Afghan Transitional Authority. The new Afghan administration approved the
stationing of ISAF troops near Kabul, regarding it as a sign of global commitment to
peace in their country. President Hamid Karzai has taken the lead in his country’s
reconstruction process. At the recent donor conference in March 2003, he presented
a reconstruction budget, totaling of $1.7 million for the coming fiscal year.41
Albania. Albania has been fighting the war on terrorism on three fronts:
intelligence-sharing, law enforcement, and financial. On the intelligence and law
enforcement front, Albanian police and justice authorities are strengthening
background checks and implementing tighter immigration controls. Al Qaeda
fighters are reported to have been infiltrating the ranks of ethnic Albanian guerrilla
forces in Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo.

38 EU and Afghanistan:
[ ht t p: / / www.eur nt / c omm/ ext e r nal _r el at i ons/ a f ghani st an/ docs/ t m] .
39 “Afghanistan: NATO prepares to take ISAF command,” Reliefweb, July 18, 2003.
40 See footnote 33.
41 Xinhua (Chinese News Agency), March 16, 2003.

On the financial front, Albania froze the accounts and assets of Jasin Kadi, a
Saudi businessman with major business holdings in Albania. Kadi, thought to
support Al Qaeda, is linked to suspected terrorist Abdel Latifi, whom Albania
extradited in November 1999. In addition, the bank accounts of several Arab
companies, which were being administered by the Arab-Albanian Islamic Bank and
the International Trade Bank of Malaysia, have now been frozen. Al Qaeda accounts
were among them.
Algeria. A special security force unit of the People’s National Army (ANP)
continues to seek the release of the 15 remaining European tourist being held
hostage by armed groups, allegedly linked to Al Qaeda. Despite reports of their
reported release on May 19, 2003, their exact whereabouts or status of release42
remains unknown. Ten of the 32 hostages were freed in May 2003 when security
forces launched an assault against the armed groups, which uncovered 13 Egyptian-
made rocket-launchers. This armed recovery confirmed allegations made in July of

2002 by U.S. intelligence services of the possible use of Algeria as a rear base for43

remaining Al Qaeda operatives.
Other efforts by Algerian officials have resulted in the arrest of nine members
of the Salafi Group for Call and Combat, including Mansouri Meliani, Saad44
Maouchi, and Llhouari Maouchi in October 2002. In a September 12, 2002 raid
in Batna, Emad Abdelwahid Ahmed Alwan, also known as Abu Mohammed, was
killed. Alwan was allegedly one of Al Qaeda’s top operatives in Africa.
Australia. Australia has committed $524 million in support of the fight against
terrorism for 2001-2003 and another $40 million to aid in rebuilding Afghanistan.
Austria. Austria has provided financial support toward the war on terrorism
in the amount of $329 million, channeled through the EU. Austria has also donated
$1 million in emergency aid to Afghanistan and has given 10 scholarships to Afghan
Belgium. Belgian authorities arrested Jerome Courtailler, brother of David
Courtailler. The brothers are accused of ties to Al Qaeda.45 In December 2001,
Tarek Maaroufi was arrested for planning to bomb the U.S. Consulate in Milan and
for his role in the assassination of Massoud.46 On September 13, 2001, Belgian
authorities arrested Nizar Trabelsi for “attempting to use explosives, association with
criminals, possession of arms of war and holding false documents.”47 Trabelsi led a
terror cell in Brussels and is linked to an attempted attack on NATO’s Brussels

42 “Hope for hostages,” Daily Telegraph, July 18, 2003.
43 BBC Monitoring International Reports, May 18, 2003.
44 BBC, October 14, 2002.
45 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
46 Sydney Morning Herald, July 20, 2002.
47 Agence France Presse, October 3, 2001.

In assistance to Afghanistan, Belgium led the largest humanitarian assistance
mission, which provided 198,413 pounds of high protein food supplement to feed
starving children there. This mission reportedly set the standards for later
humanitarian operations. A Belgian Air Force aircraft delivered this supplement,
and a Belgian airbus was used to supply 250,000 vaccinations for children.
Bosnia. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, Bosnian police arrested
two Egyptian terrorists in July 2002, Al Sherif Hassan Mahmoud Saad and Al48
Hussein Arman Ahmed, suspected of having close ties to bin Laden.
Besides intelligence and investigative efforts, the Bosnian government has
frozen the assets of several Islamic charities and foundations suspected of having ties
to Al Qaeda and bin Laden, including the Benevolence International Foundation, Al-
Haramain Islamic Foundation, and the Global Relief Fund.49
Brazil. Brazil has been investigating several possible links to terrorism within
its territory. Brazil detained Assad Ahmad Barakta, a Lebanon native suspected of
funding Hezbollah. Barakta is on the U.S. list of wanted terror financiers.50
Bulgaria. Although unconfirmed, Bulgaria reportedly responded favorably to
requests to send its instructors in the continued effort to rebuild a new Afghan army.51
The Bulgarian government also issued orders to all Bulgarian commercial banks and
financial institutions to check and freeze any possible accounts or assets possessed
by persons or organizations designated on the U.S. terrorist list. A similar order has
been issued to the Customs Agency to check customs records against the same lists.
In addition, new measures to tighten arms export control, oversee trade in dual-use
goods, and strengthen border and customs controls are also reported.
Cambodia. Cambodia has contributed to the financial war on terrorism, as
well as assistance to Afghanistan. The National Bank of Cambodia (NBC) has
instructed all financial and banking institutions to freeze assets of persons and
entities involved in terrorist activities, as listed by the U.N. Security Council and the
United States. The NBC has also issued orders to prohibit transactions with persons
or entities considered having links to terrorism.
In assistance to Afghanistan, the Cambodian government has offered to share
its de-mining expertise with the new Afghan government.
Canada. Beginning in August 2003, Canada will deploy 3,000 troops to
Afghanistan over a period of a year as part of the ISAF peacekeeping mission. On
August 17, 2003, Canadian Brigadier General Peter Devlin succeeded Germany’s

48 Reuters, July 26, 2002.
49 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003. at s/ ct / r l s / pgt r pt / 2002/ pdf .
50 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
51 “Bulgarian Army Chief says Participation in Building New Afghan Army “Almost
Certain,”“ Financial Times Information, May 15, 2003.

Brigadier General Werner Freer as commander of the Kabul Multinational Brigade,
responsible for providing security for the reestablishment of the community in Kabul
and surrounding areas. The Brigade is part of the ISAF.
Besides peacekeeping support, Canadian authorities have custody over Nageeb
Abdul Jabar Mohammed Al-Hadi for suspected connection with the September 11
attacks.52 In December 2001, Nabil Al- Marabh was arrested while trying to illegally
cross the U.S.-Canadian border, and was returned to Canada to answer forgery
charges. Al- Marabh allegedly transferred money and documents to Atta and al-
Shehhi, two of the September 11 hijackers. He is also the suspected leader of the
Toronto-based Al Qaeda cell.53
In terms of Afghan reconstruction, Canada has provided $116.5 million in
humanitarian assistance. As of July 2002, nearly $58 million had been allocated to
support emergency relief and reconstruction in Afghanistan in the form of medical,
food, and refugee assistance.
Chile. To date, Chile has sustained its effort in intelligence-sharing and
investigations, as well as fighting against terrorist financing. Chilean authorities
detained 11 Lebanese nationals for alleged ties to Ahhad Mohamed Barracked,54
suspected by Interpol of financing Al Qaeda or Hezbollah.
China. See People’s Republic of China
Cyprus. Nationally, Cyprus has created a Mobile Immediate Action Unit to
combat terrorism. This Unit consists of a specially trained antiterrorist squad as well
as police officers skilled in investigating terrorist activities. The Unit is acting in
cooperation with European, neighboring, and other countries.
Egypt. The Mubarak regime has stepped up arrests and prosecutions of
Islamist militants, including some accused of funding terrorism groups, such as
Hamas. Ayman Al-Zawahiri was sentenced to death in absentia in Egypt for plotting
anti-government activities. Al-Zawahiri, a key figure linked to the September 11
terrorist attacks, served as second in command to Osama bin Laden. Al-Zawahiri has
led an Egyptian Islamic group for the past ten years which seeks to topple the
Mubarak regime.
Finland. In terms of assistance to Afghanistan, Finland pledged 10 million
Euros (about $8.8 million) annually over a three-year period to the Afghanistan
Reconstruction Trust Fund during the Tokyo conference. .

52 Agence France Presse, September 8, 2002.
53 The News Tribune, September 29, 2002.
54 Op.Cit.

France. French authorities apprehended Karim Mehdi, of Moroccan descent,
in connection to ongoing investigations of the September 11 terrorist attacks.55 Mehdi
is believed to be connected to the Al Qaeda network operating out of Hamburg,
Other efforts have included the detention of people on terror related charges.
In October 2001, Djamel Beghal, alleged to be Al Qaeda’s Paris chief, was extradited
to France56 after being arrested by U.A.E. authorities in July 2001.57 After the
September 11 attacks, Kamel Daoudi was arrested in Britain and later extradited to
France.58 Daoudi allegedly maintained communication between Al Qaeda cells via59
the Internet. Eleven suspected members of Tafkir al-Hijra, a fundamentalist Islamic
group linked to Al Qaeda, have been arrested by French authorities. David Courtailler
was also arrested for his connections to Moussaoui and the Al Qaeda bombing of the
American embassy in Kenya.60
Georgia. On the law enforcement and intelligence front, special forces in
Georgia captured 15 Arab militants linked to Al Qaeda, including Saif al- Islam el
Masry, and turned them over to the United States in October 2002.
Germany. Germany currently shares joint command with the Netherlands of
the ISAF. The German contingent totals 2,25061 in number, comprising more than
half of the ISAF troops.
In terms of military assistance to Afghanistan, Germany is taking the lead in
international support for building an Afghan police force. It donated $9.4 million to
train and to equip the Afghan police force. In addition to providing funds, busses,
and trainers, Germany has also worked with the United States to employ Afghan war
widows to make uniforms for the Kabul police.
Germany has also provided a wide range of reconstruction and humanitarian aid.
In 2001, Germany provided $46.2 million in humanitarian aid and development-
oriented assistance to Afghanistan. It also chaired the Afghanistan Support Group,
a coordination mechanism for humanitarian donors. At the Tokyo Conference,
Germany pledged $69.4 million in 2002 and a total of $278 million for reconstruction
efforts over the next four years. Germany was one of the first nations to contribute
to the Afghanistan Interim Authority Fund, a trust fund within the U.N. framework
to support the work of the Interim Government, with a contribution of $1.7 million.
Germany served as host of the U.N. Talks on Afghanistan, which produced the Bonn

55 Associated Press, June 5, 2003.
56 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
57 Toronto Star, January 8, 2002.
58 The Guardian, September 5, 2002.
59 Agence France Presse, January 17, 2002.
60 The Ottawa Citizen, August 11, 2002.
61 On July 30, 2003, the German Embassy provided such figure.

Agreement, a blueprint for the political stabilization of Afghanistan over the next
three years.
Since September 11, German law enforcement officials have arrested several
key suspected terrorists. On October 10, 2002, German police arrested Abdelghani
Mzoudi in Hamburg for allegedly providing logistical support to the September 11
hijackers.62 Also in October 2002, Mounir el Motassadeq was charged with 300
counts of aiding and abetting murder and accused of belonging to the Hamburg cell
that led the September 11 attacks.63 Motassadeq was arrested in Hamburg in
November 2001.64 In October 2001, Mohammed Awani Ben Belgacem was arrested
by German authorities and later extradited to Italy.65 Belgacem, reportedly a senior
Al Qaeda member, was accused of obtaining chemical weapons and explosives for
Al Qaeda’s European cells.66
Honduras. According to Honduran officials, “the country is in good standing
with a recent evaluation of its programs to prevent financing of terrorism and asset
laundering.” (Tegucigalpa La Tribuna (Internet Version-WWW) in Spanish
[] .)
Hungary. In terms of reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, Hungary has
promised $1 million in humanitarian aid to Afghanistan. So far, it has delivered
approximately $364,000, and the remainder will be delivered over the course of


India. Besides providing intelligence information about terrorist training camps
used by Osama bin Laden supporters, India has contributed to the law enforcement
front. Indian police arrested four Harkat-ul-Jehadi-e-Islami (HUJI) terrorists,
including Aftab Ahmed Ansari wanted for the bombing of a U.S. Embassy office in
Calcutta in October 2002.67 In April 2002, Indian authorities arrested Al Qaeda68
member Mohammed Afroz Abdul Razzak. Razzk is accused of playing a role in
the Al Qaeda plot to attack the British parliament and other London targets on69
September 11, 2001.
In reconstruction aid to Afghanistan, India pledged $100 million at the
International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo.

62 BBC News, October 10, 2002.
63, October 22, 2002.
64 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
65 La Padania, March 2, 2002.
66 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
67 The Miami Herald 9/8/02, Asia Pulse, October 11, 2002.
68 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002.
69 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.

Indonesia. Police in Indonesia are quietly stepping up cooperation with
countries in the region. Indonesia has established tripartite cooperation with Malaysia
and the Philippines in addition to a bilateral agreement with Australia concerning
information and intelligence-sharing to combat terrorism.
Bali bomb investigators arrested several key suspects with alleged ties to Al
Qaeda. The trial of the first of these suspects, Ambrose, began May 12, 2003. The
alleged mastermind of the Bali blasts, Imam Sumatra, was arrested in February 200370
and awaits trial. On October 12, 2002, two coordinated bombs killed about 190
people on the Indonesian island of Bali. One of these bombings, near the U.S.71
consular office, indicates the United States may have been specifically targeted. In
April 2003, 18 suspected members of Jemaah Islamiah (JI) were arrested, including
the group’s leader, who is said to have links with Al Qaeda.
In mid-October 2002, Indonesian authorities reportedly questioned Abu Bakar
Bashir, prominent Muslim cleric with alleged terrorist links.72 Bashir is an alleged
leader of the militant Jemaah Islamiah (JI), a terrorist group reportedly linked to Al
Qaeda, which seeks to establish a South East Asian Islamic state. Indonesian police
continue to crack down on Islamic militants belonging to JI. Muhammad Saad Iqbal
Madni was also arrested in Jakarta and handed over to U.S. authorities.73 In late
2002, the Indonesian government declared fundamentalist Islamic group JI a terrorist
organization linked to Al Qaeda and one that allegedly helped carry out the Bali74
On June 5, 2002, the Indonesian police arrested an alleged Al Qaeda financier,
who operates under the name of Omar al-Farouq. In September 2002, information
provided by Omar al-Farouq led to the arrest of a German citizen Seyam Reda, who
is suspected of links to Al Qaeda. Prior to Reda’s arrest, the Indonesian authorities
had agreed to turn over suspects to the United States for questioning elsewhere, but
now the Government of Indonesia has decided to detain and interrogate Reda in
Iran. On a diplomatic front, the United States and Iran have recently conducted
talks on issues of common concern. Under the auspices of the United Nations,
United States and Iranian officials met in May 3, 2003 in Geneva to discuss issues
concerning Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East peace process, and terrorism. This is the

70 Seth Mydas, “Bali Bombing Case Opens with Morning-Long Indictment,” New York
Times, May 13, 2003. (See also CRS Report RL31672, Terrorism in Southeast Asia.)
71 U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April 2003. at s/ ct / r l s / pgt r pt / 2002/ pdf .
72 Economic Intelligence Unit, October 18, 2002.
73 The Washington Post, October 6, 2002.
74 The New York Times, October 16, 2002.

first in a series of expected talks. While the talks were amicable, they do not
represent renewed diplomatic relations between the countries.75
Additionally, Iran turned over 16 suspected Al Qaeda fighters to Saudi Arabia
in June 2002. These fighters had sought refuge in Iran after fleeing Afghanistan. “In
May [2002], anti-American clerical leaders deported six Saudi citizens suspected of
Al Qaeda membership to Saudi Arabia.”76 In February 2002, Iranian authorities
arrested 150 foreign nationals suspected of being Al Qaeda members.77 Despite these
apparent forward steps, some U.S. officials maintain that Iran is assisting and
sheltering Al Qaeda leaders and fighters.
Iran remains an active supporter of the interim government in Afghanistan,
recently signing five memoranda of understanding with the Afghan government,
outlining political, economic, and cultural cooperation. Iran offered support in
improving Afghan infrastructure, combating poppy-production, and training Afghan
police, army, and journalists. The Iranian government has also begun construction
of a road between Herat and Eslam Qala in Afghanistan. In Tokyo at the
International Conference on Reconstruction to Afghanistan, Iran pledged $560
million over the next five years.
Israel. Israel’s main contribution to the U.S. war on terrorism has been
continued intelligence cooperation, which was considered extensive even before
September 11. Referring to shared intelligence information, Prime Minister Sharon
stated that Israel was “assisting but not participating” in the war effort. In view of
this, Israeli consultants have advised American officials, security experts, and
business leaders about homeland security preparations, and Israeli special forces have
reportedly helped train their U.S. counterparts concerning the workings of known
Islamic terrorist groups.
Italy. Besides military support, Italy’s contribution to the war on terror ranges
from security stabilization and humanitarian assistance to law enforcement and
intelligence cooperation. In reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, Italy has
provided more than $33 million in humanitarian assistance. Italy is also engaged in
rebuilding the Afghan judiciary.
On the law enforcement and intelligence front, Italian police arrested 28
Pakistanis suspected of having ties with Al Qaeda in May 2003. Police officials
found 28 ounces of explosives, long fuses, and detonators at the scene of the raid. In
October 2002, trials began in Milan for terrorists suspects, including Abdelkader
Mahmoud Es Sayed, who is being tried in absentia. Three of Es Sayed’s associates,
including Yassine Chekkouri, Abdelhalim Hafed Remadna, and Nabil Benattia, are
on trial for their involvement in suspect activities involving the Milan Islamic

75 “U.S. in ‘Useful’ Talks with Iran; The meetings have focused recently in Iraq, Middle East
peace efforts and terrorism,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2003.
76 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
77, February 14, 2002.

Cultural Institute.78 In the July 2002, Police in Milan arrested nine people on charges
of providing logistical support and false papers to Al Qaeda members, including Said
Kazdali and Mohammed Kazdali. In February 2002, Essid Sami Ben Khamias, an
Al Qaeda leader and suspected associate of Atta, was convicted in Italian court.
Khamias was arrested in Milan in April 2001. He was also tried in absentia in
Tunisia, convicted of assisting the terrorist network, and sentenced to 20 years in
Japan. In assistance to Afghanistan, Japan has provided relief supplies for
Afghan refugees, including 1,840 tents and 18,000 blankets to the U.N. Refugee
Agency (UNHCR) in Pakistan. At the International Conference on Reconstruction
Assistance to Afghanistan, Japan pledged to provide $250 million in 2002 and $500
million over the next two and one-half years. On December 22, 2001, the Japanese
government pledged $1 million to the U.N. Afghanistan Interim Authority Fund that
was established within the U.N. Development Program (UNDP).
Jordan. After being arrested in Syria, Raed Hijazi was extradited to Jordan,
when he was condemned to death on February 11, 2002 for planning attacks against
U.S. and Jewish tourists visiting Jordan.79 Hijazi has also been linked to several of
the September 11 hijackers.
Kazakhstan. In a show of continued support for the war on terrorism,
Kazakhstan has provided access of its Shymkent airport to Norway and Denmark for80
antiterror operations in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Under this provision, the two
countries may make unscheduled landings.
Kuwait. Administration officials have praised Kuwait for actions taken to
freeze the financial assets of terrorist and their supporters. In recent months, the
government of Kuwait has taken control of all domestic charities in an attempt to
monitor assets that may be filtered to terrorist groups. Kuwait’s government has
agreed to fully cooperate with U.S. inter-agency teams, including FBI, IRS, and
Departments of States, Justice, and Treasury, attempting to trace the money trail
from Kuwaiti companies, charities, and organizations to terrorist groups.
Kyrgyzstan. Under the U.N. World Food Program (WFP), Kyrgyzstan —
along with Russia and Tajikistan — has delivered 16,500 tons of flour and wheat to
the northern provinces of Afghanistan for emergency postwar relief.
Latvia. In human assistance to Afghanistan, Latvia has sent blankets, candles,
and buckets to Afghan refugees for emergency postwar relief.
Lebanon. On October 16, 2001, Lebanese authorities arrested Daniel Samarji
and Bilal Othman, suspected of Isbat al-Ansar membership and charged with

78 Chicago Tribune, October 8, 2002.
79 Agence France Press, November 14, 2002.
80 Agence France Press, May 8, 2003.

planning terrorist acts and trading arms.81 Lebanese authorities claim that the two
suspects belong to a group on the U.S. list of terrorist organizations.82
Lithuania. In assistance to Afghanistan, the Lithuanian government has
allocated emergency humanitarian assistance funding for Afghan refugees.
Additionally, the Lithuanian government has arrested alleged Hamas and Hizballah
operatives, and has seized terrorists funds wired to a Lithuanian bank.
Luxembourg. Luxembourg made financial contributions to the Afghan
National Army Trust Fund.
Malaysia. In October 2002, Malaysian forces arrested Ahmed Ibrahim Bilal,
charged with conspiracy to conspire with Al Qaeda, who was later extradited to the83
United States. In April 2002, Malaysian police arrested 14 members of an Islamic
extremist group linked to the Al Qaeda terror network (Malaysia Mujahiddeen group
- KMM), including Sejahratul Dursina, wife of Yazid Sufaat, who is suspected of
abetting the 9/11 hijackers, planning the Bali attacks, and making bombs for Jemaah
Islamiah. In December 2001 and January 2002, Malaysian authorities detained 47
suspects linked to Al Qaeda, including Yazid Sufaat.84 Malaysia’s Internal Security
Act allows authorities to detain without trial anyone it suspects of threatening
national security.85
Morocco. On the heels of the 2003 Riyadh attacks, Morocco became the next
target for a terrorist attack. On May 17, 2003, suicide bombings left approximately
41 dead. Local fundamentalists are reportedly believed to be behind the bombings
in Casablanca. Moroccan investigators arrested eight of the 14 suspects, all
identified as Moroccans and allegedly connected to “earlier killings of people it
called ‘nonbelievers’.”86
Such cooperative efforts led to the arrest of Mohammed Heidar Zammar by
Moroccan Police and his extradition to Syria.87 Moroccan officials detained Abu
Zubair, a senior Al Qaeda leader and associate of Abu Zubaydah. In June 2002,
Moroccan authorities arrested alleged Al Qaeda members, including Zuhair Hilal

81, October 16, 2001.
82 Ibid.
83, October 8, 2002.
84 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
85, April 18, 2002.
86 Richburg, Keith B. “Most of Suicide Bombers Identified as Moroccans; Links Sought to
Earlier Killings of ‘Nonbelievers’ by Local Extremists,” The Washington Post, May 19,


87 The Independent, September 16, 2002.

Mohamed al-Tbaithi, Hilal Jaber Aouad al- Assiri, and Abdullah M’Sfer Ali al-
Ghamdi. 88
The Netherlands. Germany and the Netherlands are in joint command of the
ISAF until August 11, 2003. Since September 11, the Netherlands has pledged $153
million for humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan, most of which89
has already been disbursed. Civil Military Operations (CMO), in cooperation with
the Netherlands Armed Forces and the Afghanistan Interim Authority, have rebuilt
three schools in Kabul. The Netherlands CMO has built a playground at Lycee
Botkhak elementary school in Kabul. Plans to finance and rebuild additional schools
and water projects in Afghanistan are underway.
Besides assistance to Afghanistan, Dutch authorities have charged four men
suspected of working for Djamel Beghal in France with targeting the U.S. embassy90
in Paris and a U.S. military base in Belgium. On August 30, 2002, Dutch authorities
arrested eight people suspected of recruiting combatants for Al Qaeda, including91
Mohammed Berkous, Jerome Courtailler, Saaid Ibrahim, and Amine Mezbar.
Courtailler is the alleged leader of the Rotterdam Al Qaeda cell.92 On February 27,
2002, Amor ben Mohamed Sliti, the alleged leader of an Al Qaeda assassination
team, was arrested in the Netherlands after being extradited from Iran.93
New Zealand. New Zealand is contributing about $190,000 to projects
identified in the U.N. Immediate and Transitional Assistance Program and about
$120,000 for New Zealand NGO activities in Afghanistan. New Zealand has already
contributed about $480,000 to the U.N. Consolidated Appeal for Afghanistan. New
Zealand was the first non-European country to join Afghanistan’s international
peacekeeping force, which continued to provide personnel support through 2002.
New Zealand has also been forthcoming with intelligence support. New
Zealand’s Waihopai monitoring station is part of the five-nation ECHELON
intelligence-gateway network. New Zealand’s counter-terrorism police are
cooperating with Italian and U.S. officials to investigate potential links between
cyanide threats to U.S. Embassies in New Zealand and Rome.
Norway. Besides military support, Norway is participating in the ISAF with
the deployment of mine clearing experts. An area of 750,000 square meters at the
Kandahar and Bagram airfields and their surroundings were cleared of mines by
Norwegian personnel. In a joint unit with the Netherlands and Denmark, Norway
provided tactical airlift and humanitarian assistance. Norway has also donated

88, June 17, 2002.
89 On July 25, 2003, the Netherlands embassy provided current figures on assistance to
90 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002.
91 Ibid.
92 The Columbian, September 3, 2002.
93 The Times, February 28, 2002.

supplies and equipment for a 700-man light infantry battalion in an effort to rebuild
the Afghan army.
At the Tokyo International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to
Afghanistan, Norway pledged $40 million to support the Afghanistan reconstruction
effort. On January 1, 2002, Norway became the chair of the donor organization
Afghanistan Support Group.
Pakistan. At the request of the United Nations, in 2003 Pakistan froze the bank
accounts of a Kuwaiti charity, Lajna al-Dawah al-Islamia, which reportedly is linked
to Al Qaeda.
In April and May 2003, Pakistan arrested ten men suspected of having ties with
Al Qaeda, including Waleed Mohammad bin Attash. Bin Attash is suspected of94
involvement in the bombing of the USS Cole and the September 11 attacks.
Pakistani authorities found 150kg of explosives and 200 detonators in his possession.
In doing so, Pakistani officials believe they foiled a major Al Qaeda attack.
Pakistan has provided broad-based support for CIA and FBI searches for Al
Qaeda members, which led to a number of arrests. The most significant arrest to the
war on terror was that of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, a senior member of the Al
Qaeda leadership and reported mastermind of the September 11 attacks. He is now
in U.S. custody. Other arrests in 2002 included: Abdul Wahid, an Al Qaeda
suspect;95 six Islamic militants, including Sharib Ahmad, who allegedly organized96
the June 14 car bomb attack on the U.S. consulate; ten suspected terrorists,
including Ramzi Binalshibh, friend and roommate of Atta, an alleged September 1197
plotter; Sheikh Ahmed Salim, who reportedly directed and funded Al Qaeda in
Pakistan;98 and Abu Zubeida, Al Qaeda’s logistical planner for the September 1199
attacks and alleged to be a top lieutenant of Osama bin Laden. Zubeida is now in
American custody. Pakistan has also outlawed a number of extremists’ organizations,
including Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Tehrik-i-Jafria Pakistan, and
Tekrik-i-Nifaz -i-S hariat-Mohammadi.
In Tokyo at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to
Afghanistan, Pakistan pledged to donate $100 million over five years, and the private
joint-venture Premier-Shell Pakistan has committed $200 million in aid for the
rehabilitation of Afghan refugees.

94 World Markets Research Centre, March 1, 2003.
95 Reuters, October 24, 2002.
96 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002.
97 Ibid.
98 The Independent, September 16, 2002.
99 Los Angeles Times, April 1, 2002.

Paraguay. Paraguay has joined with Argentina and Brazil, in a collaborative
effort, to investigate the possibility of Hezbollah and Hamas fund-raising and other100
terrorist activity in the Tri-Border Area (TBA).
People’s Republic of China (PRC). In renewed diplomatic support to the
war on terrorism, China announced in March 2003 that terrorism would be the focus
of its “Strike Hard” anti-crime campaign, giving new impetus to the newly-
established antiterrorism bureau in the Ministry of Public Safety.101
Besides support on intelligence matters, U.S. and PRC officials regularly hold
expert-level consultations on combating terrorist financing, conduct semiannual
counter-terrorism consultations, and share information through law enforcement
channels. China has pledged to cut off financial flows to terrorists. In Macau,
financial authorities have directed banks to search for terrorist accounts.
China also announced that it will provide $150 million in assistance to
Afghanistan for its reconstruction.
Peru. On May 25, 2002, the Peruvian police arrested three Shining Path
suspects for their role in the car bombing, which took place outside the U.S. Embassy
on March 20, 2002.102
Philippines. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo committed her country’s full
support to the United States, including intelligence sharing, unconditional overflight
permission, uses of military facilities, logistical support, food, medicine, and medical
personnel following September 11.
The Filipino government has been combating Abu Sayyaf, a group known to
have connections to Osama bin Laden. On June 21, 2002, Filipino soldiers killed
Abu Sabaya, a top leader of Abu Sayyaf, and captured some Abu Sayyaf members.
On April 18, 2002, Filipino authorities sentenced Indonesian bomb expert Fathur
Rohman al-Ghozi, a member of Jemaah Islamiah (JI), to up to 12 years in prison for
holding two fake passports and possession of explosives.103 President Arroyo ordered
the release104 of Abdul Jamal Balfas and Tamsil Linrung for insufficient evidence
related to charges of explosive possession, but Philippine court found Agus Dwikarna

100 The TBA, the shared border of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, “has long been
characterized as a regional hub for Hizballah and Hamas fund-raising activity” although not
substantiated by intelligence sources, according to Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, April


101 “Chinese Authorities Make Crime Terrorism Focus of Crime Crackdown,” Dow Jones
International News, March 11, 2003. Jiang Zhuqing and Liu Li,”China Joins Frontline
Fight Against Terrorism,” China Daily, March 11, 2003.
102 Associated Press, June 12, 2002.
103, April 19, 2002.
104 “Indonesian militant seeks acquittal in Philippine court,” Agence France-Presse, August

23, 2002.

guilty of explosives violations.105 On September 14, 2002, Usakar Mukawat, a
suspected member of Jemaah Islamiah, was arrested for allegedly taking part in the
April bomb attacks in General Santos.106 In October 2002, Filipino authorities
arrested Abdulmukim, the alleged head of the explosives team for Abu Sayyaf in
Manilia.107 Other bombings subsequently occurred in Mindanao cities, including one
which killed a U.S. special forces soldier in October 2002.108
President Bush lauded the decision of the Philippine Department of Foreign
Affairs to ask Iraqi diplomat Husham Hussain to leave the country February 7, 2003,
following new Philippine intelligence reports that Hussain has links to Abu Sayyaf.109
Qatar. In terms of assistance to Afghanistan, Qatar has provided aid to the
National Army and a promise to build two hospitals.
Republic of China (Taiwan). In assistance to Afghanistan, the government
of Taiwan donated over $100 million in aid to Afghanistan and victims of the
September 11 attacks. Taiwan-based nongovernmental organizations have also
donated over $13 million in humanitarian and relief supplies.110
Romania. Romania’s motorized infantry battalion serving in Afghanistan
was extended until December 2003. In support of the Afghan National Army,
Romania has contributed a large quantity of training equipment: 1,000 AK-47 assault
rifles, 300,000 rounds of ammunition, magazines and cleaning sets.
Romania has also established a National Coordination Center to facilitate the
movement of land, air, and naval forces of NATO countries.
Russia. In assistance to Afghanistan, Russia has cleaned out and reconstructed
the Salang Tunnel, a tunnel connecting the northern and southern provinces of
Afghanistan. In January 2002, the tunnel opened for regular traffic, allowing
transportation of thousands of tons of food, medicine, and supplies. Also, in January
2002, a joint Russian-German project completed the construction of a pontoon
passage across Pianj River, which opened a continuous route from Tajikistan to the
central region of Afghanistan for delivery of international humanitarian assistance.
The Russian government also opened three Russian air corridors for humanitarian
assistance to the war zone. Russia has already transported more than 420,000 tons
of food and 2,100 tons of medicine to Afghanistan. In November 2001, Russia

105, May 12, 2002.
106 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002.
107 The Washington Post, November 15, 2002.
108 “American, Filipino Soldier Killed in Zambo Blast, 21 Injured,” Minda News, October

2, 2002.

109 Ferdie J. Maglalang, “Bush Lauds Arroyo,” Manila Bulletin, February 13, 2003.
110 “Taiwan Has Made Significant Contributions to War on Terrorism,” Central News
Agency, January 25, 2003.

established the first coalition hospital in Kabul, treating more than 6,000 patients. In
January 2002, the hospital was turned over to local authorities.
Russian special forces and former Soviet special forces have passed on
strategically significant advice regarding Operation Enduring Freedom based on their
combat experiences in Afghanistan. Russia has supplied maps of cave complexes in
Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia pledged to increase cooperation in the fight
against terrorism following the May 12, 2003 bombings of three Western housing
compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, which left nearly 34 dead, including eight
Americans and nine attackers. Saudi Arabia’s Interior Minister Nayef reported that
at least 30 suspects have been identified with links to the bombings, but the total
number of arrests remains unclear.111 Earlier on May 6, 2003, police raided a
suspected hideout, uncovering a large weapons cache, linked to the same militants
thought to be responsible for the Riyadh bombings.
Although the Saudis have recently been more cooperative with U.S.
investigators, FBI agents have been limited to inspection of the Riyadh blast area
only.112 Still, the Saudi government and the United States continue to publicly limit
details of Saudi cooperation in response to internal criticism of the foreign presence
in Saudi Arabia and other middle eastern countries. Prior to the May attacks, Saudi
Arabia, home to the bin Laden family, reportedly provided the United States with
intelligence information and has allowed overflights, refueling operations, and
logistical support for U.S. operations. Reports indicate that Saudi Arabia allowed the
use of Prince Sultan Air Base for coordination of air operations over Afghanistan.
Recent reports suggest that the Saudis have moved to restrict the funding of
identified terrorist groups. The Saudi regime has frozen terrorist assets in the country
and indicates plans to investigate fund raising and money laundering as a connection
to terrorist activity. In the first such joint U.S.-Saudi designation, Saudi Arabia, in
early March 2002, shut down branches of the Riyadh-based charity, Al-Hartman
Islamic Foundation, in Somalia and Albania.
In Tokyo at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to
Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia pledged $220 million in humanitarian assistance to
Afghanistan over the next three years.
Singapore. A joint statement issued by President Bush and Singapore’s Prime
Minister Goh Chock Tong in Washington on May 7, 2003 reaffirmed Singapore’s
commitment to redouble antiterrorism efforts both bilaterally and through

111 Simpson, Cam. “Saudis arrest 4 in blasts; Suspects, some dead attackers linked to Al
Qaeda,” Chicago Tribune, May 19, 2003; “Saudis Arrest Five More in bombing Probe,”
Associated Press, June 14, 2003.
112 Ibid.

multilateral organizations.113 On September 16, 2002, Singaporean authorities
announced the arrest of 21 men, allegedly members of Jemaah Islamiah. The men
had been arrested in August for reportedly planning to bomb U.S. embassies.114
Police detained 13 members of an Al Qaeda-linked group that planned a string of
seven truck bombings against the U.S., Israeli, and Australian embassies.115 In
December 2001, Singapore’s Internal Security Department arrested 15 suspects for
alleged involvement in plans to bomb several American sites in Singapore.
Singapore has also taken measures to combat terrorism include banning militant
Muslim groups in Singapore and introducing legislation to prevent money
Slovenia. Slovenia donated over 80 metric tons of arms and ammunition for
equipping and training the Afghan National Army. It also provided de-mining and
mine victims assistance.
South Korea. South Korean C-130s have flown 18 flights between Seoul and
Diego Garcia to transport over 45 tons of humanitarian relief supplies valued at $12
million. South Korea has also pledged $45 million in aid to Afghanistan over a 30-
month period. This will be used to help rebuild Afghanistan’s medical, education,
and economic infrastructure. In March 2002, Kim Sang-tae, director of the Korea
International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), was dispatched to Kabul to serve as a
resident official. He will serve as liaison for the South Korea’s reconstruction
projects in Afghanistan and will open a Korean mission in Kabul.
Spain. Spain has apprehended over 20 individuals thought to have links to Al
Qaeda. In January 2003, Spain arrested 16 suspected terrorists in a major raid that
involved more than 150 antiterrorism police officers. Prime Minister Jose Maria
Aznar referred to the arrests as an ‘extraordinarily important strike in the war against116
terror’. Bomb-making materials were found at the scene of the arrest, and Prime
Minister Aznar stated that police thwarted a ‘major terrorist attack’.117
Although Spain provides police intelligence support to the war on terrorism,
Spanish authorities are reluctant to extradite Al Qaeda terrorist suspects to the United
States to face military tribunals. On July 17, 2002, Spanish police arrested three
suspected Al Qaeda members of Syrian origin, including Ghasoub al-Abrash,
Abdalrahman Alarnaot, and Mohamed Khair. Khair was an alleged Al Qaeda118
financier, forced to leave Syria due to his membership in the Muslim Brotherhood.
In November 2001, Spanish authorities arrested 18 members of two Al Qaeda cells,
including Yusuf Galan and Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas (a.k.a. Abu Dahdah), alleged

113 Agence France-Presse, May 7, 2003.
114 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002.
115 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
116 BBC News, January 24, 2003.
117 Ibid.
118 The Christian Science Monitor, July 17, 2002.

leader of Al Qaeda’s Spanish cells. Yarkas helped recruit pilots who committed the
September 11 attacks on the United States. He had contacts with Mohammed Haydar
Zammar, who recruited Mohammed Atta for the September 11 attacks.119 Spanish
authorities have also arrested Mohammed Bensakhria, aide to bin Laden and
probable associate of Atta.
Sweden. As a neutral country, Sweden is prohibited from taking part in any
military action, but has contributed to the ISAF and shared intelligence with the
United States and its allies. On August 29, 2002, Kerim Chatty, an alleged Al Qaeda
supporter, was arrested for carrying a gun when he attempted to board a Ryanair120
flight from Stockholm to England.
In terms of aid to Afghanistan, Sweden has pledged $100 million in
humanitarian aid and reconstruction assistance for the period 2002-2004. At the
International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, Sweden
pledged over $13 million in assistance. In the fall of 2002, Swedish engineers and
a locally recruited workforce began construction of three bridges along the road
between Jalalabad and Kabul.
Sweden is hosting and chairing the Stockholm Process, aimed at making the
U.N. Security Council’s sanctions more effective. Sweden is also an active
participant in the multilateral Financial Action Task Force, and has supported recent
proposals to strengthen the instruments to combat terrorism financing. To this end,
Sweden has frozen funds and assets belonging to entities and individuals named on
lists pursuant to U.N. resolutions.
Switzerland. Despite policies of neutrality and customer confidentiality,
Switzerland, a global center for banking and finance, took strict measures against
terrorist financing. Switzerland complied with the U.N. resolutions on terrorist
financing, and by September 2002, it had frozen 72 bank accounts and $22.64 million
in assets possibly connected to the Taliban, bin Laden, and supporters of Al Qaeda.121
Also in September 2002, the Swiss attorney general visited Washington, D.C. to
reinforce the country’s commitment to the global war on terrorism. To this end, U.S.
and Swiss officials signed a new accord improving and increasing cooperation
between the two countries.122 Additionally, on January 2003, Swiss authorities gave
the United States records of a Swiss account owned by the Islamic Benevolence
International Foundation, which is believed to have links with Al Qaeda.
In assistance to Afghanistan, Switzerland pledged $18 million over two years
at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in

119 El Pais, October 15, 2002.
120 U.S. News and World Report, September 30, 2002.
121 “Swiss holds $22 mln in ‘terror’ funds,” Reuters News, September 12, 2002.
122 Sands, David R. “Swiss attorney general says bin Laden has lots of cash,” Washington
Times, September 5, 2002.

Syria. In a renewed show of cooperation, Syrian authorities delivered Farouk
Hijazi to U.S. authorities at the Iraqi border in late April 2003.123 Hijazi, “a long time
Iraqi spy” and a suspect in the assassination plot against former President George
Bush, is believed to be the number three person in Iraq’s intelligence apparatus,124
“responsible for overseeing foreign covert operations for Hussein.” James
Woolsey, former CIA director, said that “Hijazi’s capture was the biggest catch so
far...and that Hijazi is a key link between Hussein and terrorist organizations,
including Al Qaeda.”125
Syria has also reportedly shared extensive intelligence on Islamic radicals with
possible Al Qaeda connections. In August 2002, Nabil al-Marabh was sentenced to
eight months in jail for illegally entering the United States to be followed by126
deportation to Syria. In June 2002, Syrian officials announced that they had
arrested Mohammed Heidar Zammar, an associate of Mohammed Atta and
accomplice in the September 11 attacks, who had been extradited to Syria from
Morocco. 127 Syrian officials extradited bin Laden aide and associate Rifai Ahmed
Taha to Egypt.
Taiwan. See Republic of China.
Thailand. Thailand is spearheading APEC counter-terrorism capacity-
building efforts in preparation for the annual APEC leaders’ meeting scheduled for
Bangkok in October 2003. Nationally, Thailand tightened its antiterrorism measures
following intelligence reports, which reported that Thailand was one of 11 nations
targeted by Iraqi sleeper-cell agents for attacks following the U.S.-led war in Iraq.128
The Thai government also pledged to exchange intelligence information in order
to block financial flows to terrorists. The Thai government’s cooperation includes
identifying terrorist assets, reinforcing money laundering legislation, and passing new
antiterrorism measures. It is also involved in operation and coordination efforts of
the multilateral cooperation on anti-money laundering, called the EGMONT
GROUP, and is a member of the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering.
Thailand has expressed interest in joining the intelligence-sharing network recently
established between Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
In terms of aid to Afghanistan, Thailand donated 3,000 metric tons of rice
through the U.N. World Food Program and the Thai Red Cross Society donated

10,000 blankets to Afghanistan in November 2001.

123 Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2003.
124 Ibid.
125 Ibid.
126 New York Times, September 4, 2002.
127 The New York Times, June 19, 2002.
128 “Thailand Among 11 Countries on Iraq’s Hit List,”Straits Times, April 1, 2003.

Tunisia. In early March 2003, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali called for an
international conference on terrorism to “establish an international code of ethics to
which all parties will be committed. This code will help establish a responsible
dialogue that transcends double standards and defines common denominators for129
combating terrorism.”
As a result of intelligence-sharing, a Tunisian military court convicted Jaber
Trabelsi in June 2002 of being a member of al-Sunna wal Djamaa, an Islamic
militant group linked to Al Qaeda. Trabelsi was sentenced to eight years in prison
followed by five years of house arrest.130 Additionally, Belgacem Nawab was131
arrested in connection for the April Bombing of a synagogue in Djerba. Tunisian
authorities extradited Samem Zirda, alleged Al Qaeda member, to the United132
States. The same court convicted 34 Islamic militants of Al Qaeda links in January
2002, including contacts with the network’s ‘Milan cell’ suspected of recruiting
militants and training them in Afghanistan. The court sentenced these men to eight
to 20 years in prison.133 Almost all of these suspects were tried in absentia, including
Essid Sami Ben Khemais (who may have known the hijacker Atta), who was arrested
in Italy in April for an alleged plot to launch a poison chemical attack in Europe.
Turkey. Turkey assigned five ships to participate in NATO counter-terrorism
operations in the Mediterranean Sea. In assistance to Afghanistan, Turkey pledged
$5 million over five years for reconstruction, based on commitments made at the
International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo.
Turkey also increased security along its borders, enabling border guards to arrest
Al Qaeda operatives. In February 2002, Turkish officials arrested three Al Qaeda
suspects believed to have been en route to Israel to carry out a suicide bomb attack.
The suspects included Mustafa Hasan, Ahmet Mahmud, and Firas Suleiman.134
Notably, Turkey allowed the United States to transport Guantanamo detainees
through Turkish bases.
Turkmenistan. On the humanitarian front, Turkmenistan allowed U.N.
agencies to set up cross-border operations to move emergency aid from the eastern
city of Turkmenabad to Andkhvoy in northern Afghanistan. Defense Secretary
Donald H. Rumsfeld commented that Turkmenistan’s significant contribution to the

129 “President Ben Ali Calls for an International Conference on Terrorism,” Africa News,
March 5, 2003.
130 Reuters, June 27, 2002.
131 Agence France Presse, September 14, 2002.
132 Ibid.
133 Ibid.
134 BBC News, February 14, 2002.

humanitarian effort in Afghanistan “has undoubtedly saved the lives of the Afghan
United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE support includes law enforcement,
intelligence, and assistance to Afghanistan. On the law enforcement and intelligence
front, Djamel Beghal, alleged to be Al Qaeda’s Paris chief, was extradited to France136137
in October 2001. Beghal had been arrested by U.A.E. authorities in July 2001.
Kamel Daoudi was also arrested in October 2001 for playing a logistical role in the138
September 11 attacks. Daoudi was extradited to Paris. In terms of aid to
Afghanistan, UAE pledged $36 million at the International Conference on
Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan to Tokyo.
United Kingdom. Britain pledged £200 million (about $282 million) in aid
over the next five years for reconstruction. Since September 11, £60 million (about
$85.5 million) has been provided by the UK for humanitarian assistance, including
allocations to U.N. agencies, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and other
Since September 11, British authorities have arrested eleven people connected
to Al Qaeda, including Amar Makhloulif, accused of being one of Britain’s Al Qaeda
leaders. British authorities have agreed to extradite Makhloulif to the United States.
On September 21, 2001, British authorities arrested Lofti Raissi, who allegedly
trained some of the September 11 hijackers. He was released due to a lack of
substantial evidence, but U.S. authorities are still pursuing Raissi as a suspect.
Uzbekistan. Uzbek authorities reopened the country’s border crossing with
Afghanistan, the Friendship Bridge at Termez, facilitating the safe flow of
humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people. Prior to the reopening of the bridge,
some aid groups were forced to haul supplies on lengthy trips through Turkmenistan
and then into Afghanistan.
Vietnam. In terms of aid to Afghanistan’s reconstruction, the government
pledged an aid package worth $300,000. This package includes food, medicines, and
other forms of humanitarian assistance.
Yemen. FBI information led Yemeni officials to the arrest of 30 militants139
thought responsible for the slaying of American missionaries. Official state news
sources report that Yemen has taken action to move against foreigners who are
studying in the country’s religious schools and are thought to be tied to Al Qaeda.
Over 100 foreigners from countries including Indonesia, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya,
Britain, France, and Somalia have been arrested and deported for overstaying their

135 AFIS, April 28, 2002.
136 The Miami Herald, September 8, 2002.
137 Toronto Star, January 8, 2002.
138 The Guardian, September 5, 2002.
139 Kelley, Jack. “Yemen Arrests 30 Militants,” USA Today, January 2, 2003.

visas and for other questionable activities. In late October 2002, Yemeni authorities
detained 20 people in connection with the attack on the French oil tanker Limburg.140
On November 2, 2002, Qaed Senyan al-Harithi (a.k.a. Abu Ali) was reportedly killed
in a car explosion in the Marib province.141
Since September 11, Yemen has increased its intelligence cooperation by
attempting to track down members of Al Qaeda and stepping up cooperation in the
USS Cole bombing investigation. Yemeni authorities arrested 85 people with
suspected links to Al Qaeda and the October 2000 attack on the USS Cole. In
December 2001, government forces launched operations in the country’s Marib
region in search of suspected Al Qaeda operatives. Although the offensive did not
lead to the capture of Al Qaeda leaders, it demonstrated what is generally considered
a good faith effort on the part of Yemen to cooperate in the war on terrorism.

140 The Washington Post, October 31, 2002.
141 The Washington Post, November 4, 2002.

Table 1. Status of Key Al Qaeda-Linked Suspects
At-LargeCapturedPresumed Dead or Killed
Osama bin LadenKhalid Sheikh MohammedMohammed Atef
Ayman al-ZawahiriAbu ZubaydahAl-Qaed Senyan al-Harthi
Shaikh Saiid al-MaseiRamzi BinalshibhMohammed Saleh
Saif al-Adel Mohammed Haydar Zammar Tariq Anwar al-Sayyid Ahmad
Abu Mohammed al-MasriAbd al-Rahim al-NashiriAbu Jafar al-Jaziri
Sulaiman Abu Ghaith Anas al-Liby Abu Salah al-Yemeni
Thirwat Salah ShirhataOmar al-FaraqHamza al-Qatari
Abu Musab ZarqawiMohsen FAbu Ali Harthi
Amin at-HaqHomamed Sadeek Odeh
Mahfouz Ould WalidAbu Zubair Haili
Ridwuan IslamuddinZacarias Moussaoui
Zaid Khayr Mohammed Salah
Midhat Mursi Tawfiq Attash Khallad
Abu Hafs the Mauritanian Abd al-Libi al-Iraqi
Ahmad Said al-KadrIbn al-Shaykh al-Libi
Mohammed Jamal KhalifaMounir el-Motassadeq
Saad al-SharifRichard Reid
Abu Basir al-YemeniMohammed Omar Abdel-Rahman
Abd al-Aziz al-JamalAhmad Omar Abdel-Rahmn
Bilal bin MarwanShaikh Siid
Saqar al-JadawiAbdul Rahim Riyadh
Saad bin Laden Nizar Trabelsi
Sa’id BahajiDjemal Beghal
Mohamed BensakhriaKamel Daoudi
Zakariya EssabarDavid Courtailler
Mustafa Ahmed al — HisawiYusuf Galan
Ridvan Isamuddin (Hambali)Raed Hijazi
Abu WalidNabil al-Marabh
Abu Qatada
Essid Sami Benkhemais
Imad Eddin Barakat Yarkas
Sources: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Most Wanted Terrorists,
[]. Efreedom News, Al Qaeda and the Taliban,
[]; Whos Who in Al Qaeda, BBC News, []; and
Wanted in War on Terrorism, USA Today, March 3, 2003.
Note: Suspects include those individuals appearing on the U.S. terrorist’s list and the FBI most
wanted as well as those linked to the September 11 attacks. Other arrests are discussed throughout the
report. Mamoun Darkazanli and Mohammed Belfas, although generally presumed to have connections
with Al Qaeda, have not been arrested due to insubstantial evidence.

Table 2. Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF)
Actual and Expected Donor Contributions
(As of May 31, 2003)
(Afghan Solar Year) US$ Million
SY1381SY1382 Total
Donor*Total Paid-in (3/21/2002-SY1381ExpectedPaid-in(3/21/2003-SY1382Expected
3/20/2003) 3/20/2004)
Bahrain 0 .504 0.504 0.000 0.000
Canada 17.394 27.780 10.386 10.386
Denmark 5 .000 10.000 5.000 5.000
European 15.870 67.746 15.026 51.876
C o mmi s s i o n
Finland 2 .792 2.792 0.000 0.000
Germany 10.068 21.068 0.000 11.000
India 0.0000.0000.0000.000
Iran 0 .200 1.200 0.000 1.000
Ireland 1.000 2.650 0.000 1.650
Italy 17.000 17.000 0.000 0.000
Japan MoF2.5002.500 0.0000.000
Japan MoFA2.5002.5000.0000.000
Ko rea 2 .000 2.000 0.000 0.000
Kuwait 5.000 10.000 5.000 5.000
Portugal 0.2000.2000.0000.000
Luxembourg 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.000
Netherland s 33.667 72.167 0.000 38.500
No rway 6.818 21.518 0.000 14.700
Saudi Arabia10.00010.0000.0000.000
Sweden 3.103 9.103 0.000 6.000
Switzerland 0.673 0.673 0.000 0.000
T urkey 0.500 0.500 0.000 0.000
UK 15.078 70.903 7.825 55.825
U.S. 38.000 58.000 0.000 20.000
T OT AL 190.867 411.804 43.237 220.937
Source: World Bank, []
* The table lists only those pledges that have been formally confirmed.
Note: Solar Year represents Afghanistan’s budgeting cycle, which begins March 21, 2002 and ends
March 20, 2003.

Table 3. Direct Foreign Military - Related Support (Offered or
Provided) for the U.S.-Led War in Afghanistan
CountryCombataNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
T r oops
Afghanistan Xa
AlbaniaEliteSmall arms, ammunition,
commandomortars, and shells to
detachmentequip one battalion of the
and 30 specialAfghan National Army
fo rces
Australia850-1,300 National command element,Two KB 707 tanker
troops; eliteoffered troops to ISAF, andaircraft (with support
Special Airrepresentatives tocrew), four F/A-18
Services, 150CENTCOMaircraft (with support
special forcescrew), two frigates,
troopsamphibious landing ship,
two P-3 Orion long range
maritime patrol aircraft,
C-130 aircraft
Austria72 soldiers to ISAF
Azerbaijan30 military personnel to ISAF
BahrainXMaintains fighter units on
continuous alert to provide
combat air patrols
BelgiumXOne officer to CENTCOM,C-130 Air Force aircraft
one to Regional Airwith crew, including
Movement Control Center asmaintenance
deputy chief of operations, 50
troops to ISAF, and four
aircrews to support homeland
security efforts at Tinker Air
Force Base
Bulgaria Deployed peacekeepers and Access to excavation and
40-person Nuclear,construction equipment
Biological, Chemical (NBC)and supplied Afghan
decontamination unit toInterim Government with
support ISAFarms and ammunition on
an assistance basis
CanadaXCommand unit, 50 personnelSix warships, several Sea
at CENTCOM, specializedKing helicopters, six Air
ground forces in a componentForce planes, CF-18
of JTF-2, 175 Nationalfighter jets, three
Support Unit provideshumanitarian assistance
administrative and logisticalships, CC 150 Polaris,
support to Operation Apollo,three C-130 aircraft, two
and light infantry battle groupCP 140 Aurora aircraft,
deployed as part of TFand 12 COYOTE
Rakkasan with 830 personnelarmored reconnaissance
ve hi c l e s

CountryCombataNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
T r oops
CzechThree personnel atTU-154 aircraft to
RepublicCENTCOM, 250 specialiststransport persons and
trained in anti-chemicalcargo and 1,000 military
protection, special task forceuniforms to the Afghan
unit on antiterrorism, 150National Army
medical personnel (including
doctors) to support ISAF,
and peacekeeping troops in
the Balkans through a joint
battalion of Czech and Slovak
Denmark77 C-130 aircraft crew andC-130 Aircraft and six F-
personnel, 100 special16 aircraft to Manas
operation forces troops, five
personnel at CENTCOM, 34
troops to ISAF, working in
mine clearing, military police,
and ISAF staff
EgyptThree representatives to
Ethiopia Liaison officers to
Estonia XTwo explosive detectionTen cargo handlers as part
canine units for airbaseof Danish contingent to
operatio ns Manas
FinlandLiaison team to CENTCOM
and civil-military cooperation
unit with 30 officers
France4,200 troops15 personnel to CENTCOM,Only carrier battle group,
to Afghanistan60 French instructors forsix Mirage-2000 fighter
and Manastraining an Afghan armyplanes, air reconnaissance
Airfield inbattalion, and 520 troops toassets, refuelers, C-160
KyrgyzstanISAF (areas of mine clearing,and C-130 for
ground troops, helicopterhumanitarian assistance
pilots, and hospital staff) and mission air support,
and two KC-135 aircraft
deployed for aerial
refueling to Manas
Germany3,900 troops50 reconnaissance crew;Combat ships and
(includingmedical crew; NATO AWACmaritime aircraft,
special forces) crews, and 1,200 soldiers toarmored reconnaissance
ISAF vehicles, and “Flying
Hospital” (medical
evacuation Airbus A130)

CountryCombatTroopsNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
GreeceThree personnel atFrigate (with 210 crew
CENTCOM, one air forcemembers), one S-70 BA
officer assigned asAegean Hawk helicopter,
operations officer of thecountermine ship, offered
RAMCC, one Naval liaisontwo more vessels, Air Force
officer deployed to Bahrain,sorties, 64 engineering
team of Navy commandosvehicles, and two C-130
to CENTCOM (AOR), transport aircraft
engineering company of
112 men, and 56 security
support team
Guatemala30 soldiers as part of
Central American
contingent for humanitarian
wo r k
HungaryHealth unit
IrelandSeven personnelparticipating in ISAF
Armored regiment,
reconnaissance and
2,700 troops, 13 personnel atCENTCOM, 400 troopstransport planes, warships
additional 1,000participating in ISAF, andand vehicles to check for
Italyoffered, andengineering team deployedbiological and chemical
1,475 sent to the to Bagram for the repair ofweapons, carrier battle
Gulf the runwaygroup, three C-130 aircraft,
one Boeing 707, one AN-
124, and one IL-76
1,500 troops (Self-Defense
Forces) provided logisticalThree destroyers, two oiler
Japansupport, 1,200 personneldispatched to the Indiansupply ships, C-130 fleet,and U-4 aircraft provided
Ocean to provide at-seaairlift support
Offered troops for
peacekeeping operations,
two representatives to
JordanCENTCOM,Aardvark”mine clearing unit, planning
officer to RAMCC, and
medical support at a
hospital in Mazer-e-Sharif
KazakhstanOfficers to CENTCOM fortraining
KenyaLiaison officer toCENTCOM
KuwaitThree representatives toCENTCOM
KyrgystanFive representatives toCENTCOM
Pledged 12
Lativasoldiers toMilitary medics to ISAFTen cargo handlers

Kyrgyz stan

CountryCombatTroopsNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
12 military medical
personnel as part of a Czech
Lithuaniafield hospital, 40 specialoperation forces, and
representative to
Two officers taking part in
Macedoniathe ISAF as part of the
Turkish contingent
MalaysiaMedical team to helpAfghan refugees in Pakistan
485 personnel, including
224 military personnel to
ISAF, personnel at
CENTCOM, militarySix fighter planes, support
personnel accompaniedplanes, three frigates, two
various aircraft and navalminesweepers, a submarine,
The NetherlandsOffered 1,400troopsships (35 in the Carribeanwith a P-3C Orion, 166 ondeployed six F-16 aircraft to
the HNLMS Van Galen, 30Manas, and C-130 carriedout humanitarian assistance
in Kyrgyzstan with a C-130,flights
one in Qatar with a KDC-10
tank/transport aircraft, and
23 in United Arab Emirates
with a P-3C Orion)
30 soldiers participate in
Special AirISAF, seven-person airC-130 aircraft for
New ZealandService (SAS)loading team to support thehumanitarian efforts and
troopsISAF, and six personnel arelogistics
staff officers in the ISAF.
162 personnel to support
operations in Afghanistan,15 hardened vehicles, C-130
six personnel attransport aircraft, six F-16
NorwayCENTCOM; special forces;20 personnel to ISAFaircraft to Manas, and
(including mine clearingsupplies and equipment forthe Afghan army
experts and an engineering
275 troops (including
military engineers, chemical
and biological weapons
Polandspecialists); five personnelat CENTCOM; combat
engineers and logistics
platoon forces; and Polish
demining crews
Liaison representatives to
CENTCOM, eightC-130 with crew and
Portugalpersonnel deployed toISAF, medical team withmaintenance team, including
two doctors, three nurses,15 personnel
and three technicians
QatarThree representatives toCENTCOM

CountryCombatTroopsNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
Infantry battalion of 405;
nuclear, biological, and
chemical company of 70,C-130 aircraft and training
and 10 staff officers; threeequipment for the Afghan
liaison officers toNational Army (1,000 AK-
Romania450 soldiers CENTCOM; 58 troops,47 assault rifles, 300, 000
including police androunds of ammunition,
intelligence officers to themagazines and cleaning
ISAF; and mine andsets)
clearing equipment and
e ngi ne e r s
Liaison officers toSoviet-made guns, artillery,
RussiaCENTCOM and mineand tanks to Northern
clearing expertsAlliance
Liaison officer to
CENTCOM, 40 strong
Slovakiapeacekeeping unit to ISAF,special forces regiment,
NBC reconnaissance units,
and a mobile field hospital
Five personnel to
South Korea450 militarypersonnelCENTCOM and Level IINaval vessel and C-130
hospital with 90 personnel
Nine personnel at
CENTCOM; staff officers
to Permanent JointOne hercules airplane and
Headquarters (PJHQ) andtwo helicopters, one P-3B to
European Command; 30Djibouti, two C-130s
personnel to ISAF in the(offered another C-130) to
Spainareas of engineering,Manas, one supply ship
explosive ordnancedeployed to CENTCOM
disposal, logistics,region, SAR helicopters,
helicopter support, and airand two frigates to the
transport support; andCENTCOM region.
maintained a 50-person
hospital at Bagram
Two representatives to
CENTCOM, intelligence
unit of 45 to ISAF, 20
professionals from the
SwedenSwedish Rescue ServicesAgency to assist in
logistical support for
humanitarian aid
distribution, and 31 soldiers
to the ISAF

CountryCombatTroopsNon-Combat UnitsMilitary Equipment
Military engineering
battalion task force of 1,000
for infrastructure
construction and de-mining
efforts, military medical
Thailandofficers for peacekeeping
forces, offered experts in
prosthetic limbs, assistance
to train people with
disabilities, and training in
sustainable development
Special forces and
equipment to train anti-
Taliban fighters, three
personnel to CENTCOM,
90 special forces to train
Northern Alliance forces,
1,400 troops to ISAF, three
officers and oneKC-135 aerial refueling,
Turkey noncommissioned officer toISAF headquarters,ambulance, minibus, amortar gun, and other
personnel assisting inarmored vehicles to ISAF
training and equipping
Afghan National Guard, Air
Force personnel conducted
site surveys for
humanitarian assistance,
Close Air Support, and
airborne operations
United ArabThree personnel toC-130 aircraft for
Emirates (UAE)CENTCOM, humanitarian assistance
200 Royal MarineHeavy tanks; self-propelled
23,000 troops,commandos trained inmountain and winterguns and missile launchers;
1,700 personwarfare onstand-by,” 400three dozen warships,
infantry battle-commandos placed onhighincluding its largest aircraft
United Kingdomgroup skilled inreadiness,” elite Special Aircarrier with a squadron of
mountain andService and reinforced byHarrier jets and an assault
cold-weather100 British commandos, 40ship with marines and army
combatpersonnel to CENTCOM,commandos; and 11-ship
led ISAF with 1,800 troopsnaval armada
UzbekistanFour representatives toCENTCOMLeased IL-76 transportaircraft
a. The “x” signifies contributions, though no specific amount was indicated.

Table 4. Detail of Foreign Military - Related Support
(Offered or Provided) for the US-Led War in Afghanistan
CountryBasingRightsMaritime AccessOverflightRightsOther Facilities and Post-War Aid
Albania X X Airports
AustriaX (and transit
fl i ght s)
Azerbaij an X
BahrainXXHosts the headquarters of U.S.
Navy’s Fifth Fleet, Bahrain royal
air base houses U.S. aircraft,
agreed to house officers of the
Marine Central Command
BangladeshXXRefueling facilities
BulgariaX (forHosted deployment of six U.S.
military andKC-135 aircraft and 200 support
humanitariapersonnel at Burgas
n aircraft)
CambodiaXLanding facilities to U.S. aircraft
CyprusAirport facilities
Czech RepublicX (air space en
route to conflict
DjiboutiXXXLanding support and hosts
Coalition forces from France,
Germany, the U.K., and the
United States
Egypt X
EthiopiaXXSite Surveys
France X
Geo r gia X X
Germany X
Greece X
HungaryXLanding clearances
IcelandKeflavik airport
I r e land Air field s
Jordan X X
KazakhstanXAirport and offer to host U.S.
troops; allows use of Shymkent
airport by Denmark and Norway
for antiterrorism operations
Kenya X X X

CountryBasingRightsMaritime AccessOverflightRightsOther Facilities and Post-War Aid
KuwaitX (CampX
Doha and
Ali Salem
and Ahmed
Al Jaber)
KyrgyzstanManas international airport and
road and rail infrastructure for
humanitarian assistance
La tiva X X X
Lithua nia Air p o r ts
Malaysia X
MoldovaXChisinau Airport
Oman Airfields at Seeb, Thumrait, and
Masirah Island
Philippines XX
Portugal XLanding rights at Lajes Air Base
QatarX (Al-
Ud eid )
RomaniaXAir, land, and maritime facilities
Russia XAllowed U.S. troops to be based
in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Saudi ArabiaPrinceX
Sultan Air
Slo vakia X
TajikistanThree air
TurkeyEight airX
b a se s,
includ ing
I ncir lik
TurkmenistanX (forRefueling support for
humanitarian aid)humanitarian support
Ukraine X X
United ArabXX
Emirates (UAE)
UzbekistanXHosted 1,500 U.S. troops
a. Allowing use of the countrys infrastructure and other assets, including training and interviewing

Table 5. Counter-Terrorism Measures
Approved or Considered
Organizatio n/ Int erna t io na l R eg io na l N a t io na l
Co unt ry
FinancialEight Special
Action TaskRecommendations on
Force (FATF)Terrorist Financing
Asia PacificAPEC Leaders Statement on
Economic Co unter-terrorism
Cooperatio n
Association ofRegional framework for
Southeastfighting transnational crime
Asian Nationsand ASEAN plan of action;
(ASEAN)Declaration on Joint Action to
Counter Terrorism; and
Support to APEC declaration
EuropeanEU Directive on Combating
Union (EU)Money Laundering
Organization ofInter-American Treaty of
AmericanReciprocal Assistance and
States (OAS)Hemispheric Cooperation to
Prevent, Eliminate, Combat
Terrorism Resolution, Inter-
American Committee Against
Terrorism, and Inter-
American Convention Against
OrganizationAntiterror policy and
for SecurityCounter-terrorism plan
and(Bucharest Conference
Cooperation inDecember 2001)
ShanghaiCounter-terrorism body in
CooperationBishkek, Kyrgyzstan
O r ga ni z a t i o n
AlbaniaU.N. Res. 52/164 and
AlgeriaU.N. Res. 54/109
AngolaOAU “Convention on theAntiterrorism
Prevention and Combating oflegislation
Antigua &U.N. Sec. Res. 1373Nassau Declaration onAntiterrorism financing
BarbudaInternational Terrorism
ArgentinaU.N. Res. 54/109Cooperation with Brazil andFinancial Intelligence
P a r a gua y Unit
AustraliaU.N. Res. 52/164ANZUS Security TreatyAntiterrorism
legislation and
Australian Transaction
Reports and Analysis
Center (AUSTRAC)

Organizatio n/ Int erna t io na l R eg io na l N a t io na l
Co unt ry
AustriaU.N. Res. 54/109Financial Intelligence
unit; Antiterrorism
fi na nc i n g
AzerbaijanU.N. Res. 52/164 and
BahamasU.N. Res. 54/109 andNassau Declaration onInternational
1333International TerrorismObligations Order 2001
BahrainAntiterrorism financing
BangladeshU.N. Sec. Res. 1386
and 1373
BarbadosNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
BelizeRegional Migration
Conference (RMC)
Declaration Against
Terrorism; Nassau
Declaration on International
BoliviaU.N. Res. 54/109OASResolution
Strengthening Cooperation to
Prevent, Combat, and
Eliminate Terrorism
BrazilCooperation with Argentina
and Paraguay
BulgariaU.N. Res. 52/164 andAntiterrorism financing
Burkina FasoOAU “Convention on the
Prevention and Combating of
CambodiaU.N. Sec. Res. 1386Antiterrorism financing
and 1373
CanadaAnti-Terrorism Act and
Public Safety Act
ChileAll U.N. conventionsAntiterrorism financing
and protocols relating
to terrorism
ColombiaU.N. Res. 54/109, alsoFinancial Information
party to three otherand Analysis Unit
U.N. conventions
Costa RicaU.N. Res 52/164RMCDeclaration Against
CyprusU.N. 54/109 andAntiterrorism financing
DenmarkU.N. Res. 54/109 and
DjboutiAntiterrorism financing
DominicaU.N. Res. 1373Suppression of the
Financing of Terrorism
Ac t
DominicanRMCDeclaration Against
Republic Terrorism

Organizatio n/ Int erna t io na l R eg io na l N a t io na l
Co unt ry
EcuadorRMCDeclaration Against
EgyptAntiterrorism financing
El Salvador
EritreaU.N. Sec. Res. 1386
and 1373
EstoniaU.N. Res. 52/164 and
FinlandU.N. Res. 52/164 and
Fr ance Antiter r o r ism
legislatio n
Ger many Antiter r o r ism
legislatio n
GhanaU.N. Res. 54/109Antiterrorism plan;
Antiterrorism financing
Grenada U.N. Sec. Res. 1373Nassau Declaration onAntiterrorism act
International Terrorism
GuatemalaRMCDeclaration Against
GuyanaNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
HaitiNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
HondurasRMCDeclaration Against
HungaryU.N. Res. 52/164
IcelandU.N. Res. 52/164 and
IndiaPrevention of Terrorism
Ordinance 2001
IndonesiaTrilateral Agreement withEradication of Criminal
Malaysia and Philippines onActs of Terrorism 2002
Terrorism and Transnational
Cr ime s
IsraelPrevention of Terrorism
Ordinance 2001
JamaicaU.N. Sec. Res. 1333Nassau Declaration on
and U.N. Res. 54/109International Terrorism
JapanU.N. Sec. Res. 1333antiterrorism Special
and 1267 and U.N.Measures Law 2001
Res 54/109
KenyaU.N. Res. 54/109, and
is party to nine other
U.N. conventions
KuwaitAntiterrorism financing
LatviaAntiterrorism plan
LithuanianAntiterrorism program
LuxembourgAntiterrorism plan

Organizatio n/ Int erna t io na l R eg io na l N a t io na l
Co unt ry
MalaysiaU.N. Sec. Res. 1373Trilateral Agreement withAntiterrorism
Indonesia and Philippines onfinancing; Southeast
Terrorism and TransnationalAsia counter-terrorism
Cr ime s centre
MaltaU.N. Res. 52/164 and
MexicoU.N. Res. 54/109RMCDeclaration Against
MonacoU.N. Res. 52/164 and
MontserratNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
MoroccoU.N. Sec. Res. 1386
and 1373; and U.N.
Res. 54/109
MozambiqueU.N. Res. 54/109Review of antiterrorism
NetherlandsAntiterrorism action
New ZealandANZUS Security TreatyTerrorism Suppression
Act 2002; antiterrorism
NicaraguaU.N. Sec. Res. 1267RMCDeclaration Against
and 1386Terrorism
NorwayU.N. Res. 52/164 and
PanamaRMCDeclaration Against
ParaguayCooperation with Brazil and
Ar ge nt i na
People’sAntiterrorism action
Republic ofplan
PeruU.N. Res. 54/109
PhilippinesTrilateral Agreement with
Indonesia and Malaysia on
Terrorism and Transnational
Cr ime s
PortugalU.N. Res. 52/164
QatarAntiterrorism financing
People’sU.N. Res. 54/109
Republic of
China (PRC)
Republic ofTerrorism Task Force
China (Taiwan)
RussiaU.N. Res. 54/109
Saudi ArabiaAntiterrorism financing
Senegal Antiterrorism financing

Organizatio n/ Int erna t io na l R eg io na l N a t io na l
Co unt ry
SingaporeAntiterrorism plan
St. Kitts andNassau Declaration on
NevisInternational Terrorism
St. LuciaNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
St. VincentU.N. Res. 1333
SlovakiaU.N. Res. 52/164 and
SloveniaU.N. Res. 52/164 and
South AfricaCommonwealthOAU “Convention on the
Commission onPrevention and Combating of
Terrorism Terrorism
South KoreaU.N. Res. 54/109
SpainU.N. Res. 52/164 and
SurinameNassau Declaration on
International Terrorism
SwedenU.N. Res. 52/164 andAntiterrorism financing
TajikistanU.N. Res. 52/164 and
TanzaniaU.N. Sec. Res. 1373
ThailandRatified 5 differentAntiterrorism plan,
U.N. conventions onantiterrorism financing,
terrorismamending Anti-Money
Laundering Act of 1999
Trinidad andAcceded to 11 of theNassau Declaration on
TobagoU.N. conventionsInternational Terrorism
against terrorism
TunisiaU.N. Res. 54/109
TurkeyAntiterrorism financing
UkraineU.N. Res. 52/164 Antiterrorism financing
United ArabAntiterrorism financing
UnitedAnti-Terrorism, Crime
Kingdomand Security Act 2001
Note: This list represents only a sample of international, regional, and national counter terrorism
measures adopted by country, and is not exhaustive. See Appendix: Links for Abbreviations, U.N.
Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan, for further information to some of the counter-
terrorism measures mentioned herein.

Appendix: Links for Abbreviations
U.N. Action Against Terrorism
U.N. Resolution 49/60: Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International
Terrorism (12/94)
[ h ttp:// documents/ga/res/49/a49r060.htm]
U.N. Resolution 54/109: Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of
Terrorism (12/99)
[ h ttp://]
U.N. Resolution 52/164: Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings
[ h ttp:// ga/documents/gares52/res52164.htm]
U.N. Resolution 1373 (9/28/01) to combat international terrorism
[ h ttp:// News/P ress/docs/2001/sc7158.doc.htm]
U.N. Security Council Resolutions Regarding Afghanistan
U.N. Resolution 1267 (10/99) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ onal/nea/sasia/afgh an/un/res1267.htm]
U.N. Resolution 1333 (12/00) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ onal/nea/sasia/afgh an/un/res1333.pdf]
U.N. Resolution 1363 (7/01) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ h ttp:// Docs/scres/2001/res1363e.pdf]
U.N. Resolution 1378 (11/01) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ /topical/pol/terror/01111512.htm]
U.N. Resolution 1383 (12/01) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ h ttp:// Docs/scres/2001/res1383e.pdf]
U.N. Resolution 1386 (12/01) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ h ttp:// Docs/scres/2001/res1386e.pdf]
U.N. Resolution 1388 (1/02) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/212/87/PDF/ N0221287.pdf? O
U.N. Resolution 1390 (1/02) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ h ttp:// doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/216/02/PDF/N0221602.pdf? O

U.N. Resolution 1401 (2002) on the situation in Afghanistan
[ h ttp://daccess - o d s doc/ UNDOC / G EN/ N 02/ 309/ 14/PDF/ N0230914.pdf? O
Military Terms
Airborne Early Warning and Control Force (AWACS)
U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM)
[ h ttp://]
Multinational Interception Operations (MIF)
[ h ttp:// CurrentId =1400]
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)
[ h ttp://]
Operation Noble Eagle
[ h ttp:// . shtml]
Regional Air Movement Control Center (RAMCC)
[ h ttp://]
Counter- terrorism Resolutions and Actions by Country and
Regi on 142
The Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism
[ h ttp:// docs/league/terrorism98.html]
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (Great Britain)
Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law 2001 (Japan)
[ h ttp:// on/n-am erica/us/terro0109/speech/pm1029.html]
ANZUS Security Treaty
[ .html]
ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counter Terrorism]

142 This list represents only a sample of counter terrorism resolutions and actions, and is not

Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Center (AUSTRAC)
[ h ttp://]
Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Act


Executive Order 13224 (9/23/01)
European Union Directive on Money Laundering:
[ h ttp:// t/comm/internal_market/en/fi nances/general/launden.htm]
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN)
[http://www.ustreas .gov/fincen/]
Eradication of Criminal Acts of Terrorism 2002 (Indonesia)
Hemispheric Cooperation to Prevent, Eliminate, and Combat Terrorism:
[ h ttp://]
International Law Enforcement Academy
Law of the Ukraine “On preventing and counteracting the legalization (laundering)
of incomes acquired by criminal means” 2002 nl/full/eng/nl_eng_20021209_0169.pdf
Nassau Declaration on International Terrorism:
[ h ttp:// archives/nassaudeclaration%20on%20territorism.htm]
Organization for African Unity (OAU) “Convention on the Prevention and
Combating of Terrorism”
[ h ttp:// a/African_facts/RegOrgani s a t i o n s / u n i t y_ t o_union/pdfs/oau/tr
eaties/Algi ers_convention.pdf]
Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 (India)
Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance 2001 (Israel)
[ h ttp:// il/counter_ter /law/lawdet.cfm? l awid=11]
Regional Migration Conference (RMC) “Declaration Against Terrorism”
[ 7a_1.html]
Terrorism Suppression Act 2002 (New Zealand)
[ h ttp:// ]

Trilateral Agreement on Terrorism and Transnational Crimes
[ h ttp:// newsid=1479]
U.S.- India Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism
U.S.-Pakistan Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism
Groups Allegedly Affiliated with Al Qaeda143
The Advice and Reform Committee
Asbat al- Ansar (Lebanon)
Harakat ul-Ansar/Mujahadeen (Pakistan)
Al-Badar (Pakistan)
Armed Islamic Group/GIA (Algeria)
Saafi Group for Proselytism and Combat/GSPD (Algeria)
Talaa al Fath (Vanguards of Conquest)
The Groupe Roubaix (Canada/France)
Harakat ul Jihad (Pakistan)
Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan (Pakistan)
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam/JUI (Pakistan)
Hezbollah (Lebanon)
Hezb ul-Mujahideen (Pakistan)
al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, Egypt)
al-Hadith (Pakistan)
Hamas (Palestinian Authority)
Bayt al-Imam (Jordan)
Islamic Jihad (Palestinian Authority)
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
al-Jihad (Bangladesh)
al-Jihad (Egypt)
al-Jihad (Yemen)
Laskar e-Toiba (Pakistan)
Lebanese Partisans League
Libyan Islamic Group
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (Philippines)
Partisans Movement (Kashmir)
Abu Sayyff (Philippines)
al-Ittihad (Somalia)
Ulema Union of Afghanistan

143 Alexander, Yonah. Usama Bin Laden’s Al-Al-Qaeda: Profile of a Terrorist Network.
New York: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2001.