Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update

Report for Congress
Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste:
2002 Update
November 26, 2002
James E. McCarthy
Anne L. Hardenbergh
Resources, Science, and Industry Division

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress

Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste:
2002 Update
This report, which replaces CRS Report RL31051, provides updated
information on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste (MSW). Since the late
1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would allow
states to impose restrictions on interstate waste shipments, a step the Constitution
prohibits in the absence of congressional authorization. Over this period, there has
been a continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state
lines for disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This
report provides data useful in addressing these questions.
Total interstate waste shipments continue to rise due to the closure of older local
landfills and the increasing consolidation of the waste management industry. About
35 million tons of municipal solid waste crossed state lines for disposal in 2001, an
increase of 9.4% over 2000. Waste imports have grown each year since CRS began
tracking them in the early 1990s, and now represent 21.6% of all municipal solid
waste disposed at landfills and waste combustion facilities. In the last eight years,
reported imports have increased 141%.
Pennsylvania remains, by far, the largest waste importer. The state received

10.7 million tons of municipal solid waste and 1.9 million tons of other non-

hazardous waste from out of state in 2001, more than 30% of the national total for
interstate shipments. Virginia, the second largest importer, received 4.1 million tons,
62% less than the amount received by Pennsylvania. Michigan, the third largest
importer, imported 3.6 million tons of MSW in fiscal year 2001; waste imports to
Michigan have doubled since 1999. Twenty-three states had increased imports in the
current report – the largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. In all,
eight states reported imports that exceeded one million tons.
While waste imports increased overall, several states (including New
Hampshire, South Carolina, Connecticut, Arizona, and Washington) reported sharp
declines in waste imports.
New York remains the largest exporter of waste, with New Jersey and Illinois
in second and third place, respectively. Four states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois,
and Maryland) account for more than half the national total of waste exports.

In troduction ..................................................1
Total Shipments...............................................7
States Reporting Increased Imports................................7
States Reporting Decreased Imports...............................9
Major Exporters...............................................9
Net Imports and Exports.......................................10
Additional Information........................................11
List of Figures
Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year............2
Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year............2
List of Tables
Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year............3
Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year............4
Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year..6
Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and
Sources of Imported MSW, by State..........................12

Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update
This report provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal
solid waste. Concerned about increased waste imports, some states have attempted
to regulate this commerce; federal courts, however, have declared these state
restrictions unconstitutional. If states are to have such authority, congressional action
is required.
Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills
that would grant such authority.1 Over this period, there has been a continuing
interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal,
and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data
useful in addressing these questions. It updates information provided in earlier CRS
reports. 2
The report presents information gathered through telephone contacts with solid
waste officials in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Canadian province
of Ontario. The data obtained from these contacts are summarized in Tables 1, 2, and
3, and Figures 1 and 2. Table 4 presents additional information, including the names
and telephone numbers of state contacts.
Not all states require reporting of waste imports, and very few track exports, so
the available data are incomplete and in some cases represent estimates rather than
actual measurements. In a number of cases, faced with conflicting reports from
exporters and importers or no quantitative data at all, we provided our best estimate
based on discussions with state officials or other sources.

1 Legislation on interstate shipment of waste has been introduced in every Congress since
the 100th. In the 104th Congress, the Senate passed S. 534. The bill would have granted
states authority to restrict new shipments of municipal solid waste from out of state, ifrd
requested by an affected local government. In the 103 Congress, both the House and
Senate passed interstate waste legislation (H.R. 4779 and S. 2345), but lack of agreement
on common language prevented enactment. For a discussion of the issues addressed in these
bills, see CRS Report RS20106, Interstate Waste Transport: Legislative Issues.
2 This report replaces Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update, CRS
Report RL31051. Earlier reports, now out of print but available directly from the author,
were Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2000 Update, CRS Report RL30409,
Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1998 Update, CRS Report 98-689; Interstate
Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1997 Update, CRS Report 97-349; Interstate Shipment
of Municipal Solid Waste: 1996 Update, CRS Report 96-712; Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste: 1995 Update, CRS Report 95-570; and Interstate Shipment of
Municipal Solid Waste, CRS Report 93-743.

Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or latest year,
in tons
Amounts in Tons
1,000,000 or greater
500,000 to 999,999
100,000 to 499,999
0 to 100,000

Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or latest
year, in tons

Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year
(in tons)
StateQuantity Imported
Pennsylvaniaa 10,666,090b
Virginia 4,098,684c,d
Michigan 3,597,729
Oh io 1,988,753e
Indiana 1,456,699d
Illinois 1,440,804f
Oregon 1,301,882
Wisconsin 1,106,928g
Georgia 964,285f
New Jersey 892,394
New York839,700
New Mexico 750,000
Kentucky 701,442
Kansas 636,847h
South Carolina 579,299
Nevada 532,615h
Iowa 505,598
Mississippi 466,399f,i
Alabama 382,000
Tennessee 329,036j
Arizona 260,000
New Hampshire250,000
West Virginia200,000
Maine 164,527
Oklahoma 125,000
Nebraska 122,500f
Washington 116,365f
North Dakota103,382h, l
Connecticut 75,941
Massachusetts 67,247m
Maryland 39,926n
Texas 34,173
California 28,672h
North Carolina 21,614
Arkansas 12,718
Idaho 12,583o
Utah 5,967
South Dakota1,400
a In addition, Pennsylvania received 1,938,857 tons i As reported by BioCycle magazine.
of other waste (industrial waste, construction/ k 1999.l
demolition [C&D] waste, ash, asbestos, and sludge) Connecticut import total does not include waste
from out of state at MSW landfills in 2001. from New York that was received at a Connecticutb
Virginia also imported 720,782 tons of other waste, transfer station and re-exported to other states for
mostly sludge, incinerator ash, and C&D waste in 2001.
10/1/2000 - 9/30/2001. Maryland also imported 422,945 tons of C&Dd
Converted from cubic yards using 3.3 cu. yds. = 1 ton. waste.en
Indiana also imported 172,410 tons of non-municipal 9/1/2000 - 8/31/2001.o
solid waste, primarily C&D and industrial waste Utah landfills have generally imported more
in 2000. industrial than municipal solid waste.f
7/1/2001 - 6/30/2002.h
7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001.j
4/1/2001 - 3/31/2002.
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials.

Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year
(in tons)
StateQuantity Exported
New Yorka 7,493,130b
New Jersey 5,431,121
Illinois 3,084,880
Maryland 2,081,230
Ontario, Canada1,976,000c
Missouri 1,671,162
Massachusetts 1,015,042
Oh io 986,693
District of Columbia961,052
Indiana 927,245e
North Carolina 900,743
California 746,433f
Connecticut 732,439
Minneso ta 671,800
P ennsylvania 576,525
Florida 519,251g
Texas 518,698e
Iowa 390,917
Georgia 350,000
West Virginia331,635
Tennessee 303,882
Kentucky 275,341
Wisconsin 204,831
Mich igan 146,358
Id ah o 134,062h
Rhode Island 121,631
Vermont 121,546
Alab ama 107,769
Louisian a 103,539e
South Carolina 101,603
Arkansas 91,088i
Delaware 83,689
Mississippi 74,515
New Hampshire57,000
Kansas 53,111j
Maine 50,862
Virginia 47,419
Alaska 30,000
Nebraska 17,900
Oklahoma 19,990h
Oregon 19,384
North Dakota15,418
Nevada 5,475
South Dakota2,400
Utah 1,000
a As reported by seven importing states. New Yorks data indicate exports of 4,900,100 tons.
b As reported by six importing states. New Jerseys data indicated substantially smaller exports (2,651,000 tons
in 2000).c
As reported by receiving states. Missouris data indicate exports of 1,439,834 tons in 2001. A significant
percentage of Missouri’s exports are believed to be construction and demolition or industrial waste sent to MSW
As reported by four receiving states (Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois). Indiana reported 335,190 tons
of exports, but noted that the amount was incomplete because it only counted exports from transfer stations.e
July 2000 - June 2001.

f As reported by receiving states, Connecticut exports may include waste that originated in New York State, but
was managed at a Connecticut transfer station.g
September 1, 1999 - August 31, 2000.h
2000 data.i
As reported by 4 receiving states. Delaware reported only 14,518 tons of exports in 2001.j
1999 data.
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. In many cases,
the amount is based on data compiled by receiving states. See Table 4 entries for additional information.

Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or
Latest Year
(in tons)
(Data subject to numerous qualifications: see notes from Tables 1, 2, and 4.)
StateImportsExportsNet Imports/Exports
P ennsylvania 10,666,090 576,525 10,089,565
Virginia 4,098,684 47,419 4,051,265
Mich igan 3,597,729 146,358 3,451,371
Oregon 1,301,882 19,384 1,282,498
Oh io 1,988,753 986,693 1,002,060
Wisconsin 1,106,928 204,831 902,097
New Mexico750,000-750,000
Georgia 964,285 350,000 614,285
Kansas 636,847 53,111 583,736
Indian a 1 ,456,699 927,245 529,454
Nevada 532,615 5,475 527,140
South Carolina579,299101,603477,696
Kentucky 701,442 275,341 426,101
Mississippi 466,399 74,515 391,884
Alab ama 382,000 107,769 274,231
Arizona 260,000 - 260,000
New Hampshire250,00057,000193,000
Io wa 505,598 390,917 114,681
Maine 164,527 50,862 113,665
Oklahoma 125,000 19,990 105,010
Nebraska 122,500 17,900 104,600
North Dakota103,38215,41887,964
Montan a 33,964 - 33,964
Tennessee 329,036303,88225,154
Utah 5,967 1,000 4,967
South Dakota1,4002,400-1,000
Alaska - 30,000 -30,000
Arkansas 12,718 91,088 -78,370
Delaware - 83,689 -83,689
Louisian a - 103,539 -103,539
Id ah o 12,583 134,062 -121,479
Vermont - 121,546 -121,546
Rhode Island-121,631-121,631
West Virginia200,000331,635-131,635
Texas 34,173 518,698 -484,525
Florida - 519,251 -519,251
Connecticut 75,941 732,439 -656,498
Minnesota- 671,800-671,800
California 28,672 746,443 -717,771
Wash ington 116,365 949,685 -833,320
North Carolina21,614900,743-879,129
Massachusetts 67,247 1,015,042 -947,795
District of Columbia-961,052-961,052
Missouri 178,032 1,671,162 -1 ,493,130
Illinois 1 ,440,804 3,084,880 -1 ,644,076
Ontario, Canada-1,976,000-1,976,000
Maryland 39,926 2,081,230 -2 ,041,304
New Jersey892,3945,431,121-4,538,727
New York839,7007,493,130 -6,653,430
Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews.

Fifteen of the states provided data for a period other than calendar year 2001 –
either their latest fiscal year or a different calendar year. This adds another layer of
imprecision: we combined data for whatever was the latest reporting period, even
though in these 15 cases, this meant combining data from different time periods.
Each of the exceptions from the 2001 reporting period is noted in the appropriate
tables, but the reader should perhaps keep in mind that many of the totals reported
here are our best estimate rather than precise figures.
Total Shipments
The data show that total interstate waste shipments continue to rise: imports in
the current survey totaled 35.0 million tons, 15.1% of the 231.9 million tons of
municipal solid waste generated in the United States.3 Of municipal waste disposed
(as opposed to recycled or composted), the percentage is even higher. EPA estimates
that 69.9 million tons of municipal solid waste were recycled or composted in 2000,
leaving 162 million tons to be disposed in landfills or incinerators. Of this amount,

21.6% crossed state lines for disposal.4

Between CRS’s year 2001 report (reporting largely 1999 and 2000 data) and the
current survey (reporting generally 2001 data), imports increased 3.0 million tons, or
9.4%. Since 1993, reported imports have risen 141%, from 14.5 million tons in 1993
to 35.0 million tons in the current survey.
States Reporting Increased Imports
Twenty-three states had increased imports of municipal waste in 2001, with the
largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. The increases in these two
states, 0.9 million tons and 0.75 million tons respectively, total 55% of the entire
increase nationally.
The preponderance of these two states in the 2001 waste statistics demonstrates
another element of the emerging picture of interstate waste shipment: 52% of total
municipal waste imports are disposed in just three states: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and
Pennsylvania continues to be the largest waste importer, by far. Disposal
facilities in the state received 10.7 million tons of MSW and 1.9 million tons of other

3 Because many of the larger importers now differentiate MSW from other non-hazardous
waste imports, we compared total MSW imports to EPA’s national estimate of MSW
generation (231.9 million tons in the latest available year, 2000). State-reported waste
generation, summarized in BioCycle magazine’s annual survey, is substantially higher (409
million tons in 2000) but is likely to include other nonhazardous waste, provided it was
disposed at MSW facilities. For state-reported data, see Nora Goldstein and Celeste Madtes,
“The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, December 2001, p. 42.
4 Much of the waste destined for recycling may also have crossed state lines, but waste
destined for recycling does not carry the same stigma as that sent for disposal, and recycling
facilities do not generally require permits by state agencies. Thus, amounts shipped across
state lines for recycling cannot generally be tracked by the solid waste agencies.

nonhazardous waste from out of state in 2001. The amounts represented half of all
solid waste disposed in the state and more than 30% of the national total for interstate
After Pennsylvania, Virginia is the largest waste importer, with 4.1 million tons
of MSW imports and 720,782 tons of other nonhazardous waste. Despite predictions
that Virginia would receive increased imports as New York’s Fresh Kills landfill
phased out operations, waste imports to Virginia have remained roughly the same in
the 1998-2001 period. (Instead, New York’s increased exports appear to have gone
primarily to Pennsylvania and New Jersey.)
Michigan, the third largest waste importer in 2001, saw out-of-state waste
disposed in the state grow by more than 750,000 tons that year. Substantial amounts
of waste come to Michigan from Illinois, Indiana, and other neighboring states; but
the biggest source, accounting for about half of Michigan’s out-of-state waste, is
Ontario, Canada. Ontario’s waste shipments are growing as the Toronto area awards
new contracts for waste disposal and closes its two remaining landfills. At the
beginning of 1999, the Toronto area was generating about 2.8 million tons of waste
annually, of which about 700,000 tons were shipped to Michigan. By early 2003,
however, there will be virtually no local disposal capacity. Barring unforeseen
developments, most of this waste is expected to be sent to Michigan for disposal.
In other highlights:
!Eight states reported imports exceeding one million tons per year in
the latest year, a figure unchanged from our two previous surveys,
which reported 1998 and 2000 data.
!Another 21 states had imports exceeding 100,000 tons.
!For the fourth year in a row, New Jersey is on the list of major
importers, with 892,394 tons of MSW imports in 2000 (2001 data
were not yet available). The state is still a major exporter of waste,
as well: receiving states estimate New Jersey’s exports at more than
5.4 million tons in 2001. But the absence of flow control (local
government requirements that waste within their jurisdiction be
disposed at local facilities, which were overturned by the courts in
the mid-1990s) has led waste-to-energy facilities in New Jersey to
search for waste to replace local waste now being disposed
elsewhere. As a result, large amounts of waste are entering New
Jersey from New York.
!New York, the nation’s largest waste exporter, also saw rapid
growth in waste imports in 2000 and 2001. The state imported
839,700 tons of waste in 2001, an increase from 539,000 tons in our
previous survey.
!Other states reporting major increases in imports were Ohio,
Georgia, and New Mexico. Ohio has had a nearly 900,000 ton
increase in MSW imports between 1998 and 2001; Georgia

experienced a nearly 750,000 ton increase over the same three years;
and New Mexico had a 500,000 ton increase in the last two years.
!Oklahoma made its first appearance on our list of importers: the
state reported that in September 2001, it began receiving 1,500 tons
per day of waste from Wichita, Kansas. Based on this information,
we estimate imports at 125,000 tons for the year 2001. This amount
will increase to around 400,000 tons in 2002.
!Although there are no comprehensive data, imports to transfer
stations5 are a political issue in some locations. Transfer stations are
generally located in urban areas and are subject to less stringent
regulation than disposal facilities. Heavy truck traffic and odors
have aroused concerns in some neighboring communities.
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia report
significant amounts of out-of-state waste imported to transfer
stations, then exported to other states for disposal. New York City’s
plan to export waste to transfer stations in New Jersey raised
substantial controversy, before being rescinded.
States Reporting Decreased Imports
While waste imports increased overall, 14 states reported declines in waste
imports. In many cases, the declines were small, but five of the states (New
Hampshire, South Carolina, Connecticut, Arizona, and Washington) had declines
exceeding 100,000 tons. Most notable were: South Carolina, where imports declined
by about one-third in the last two years (simultaneous with a major increase in
Georgia’s imports); Connecticut, where imports declined by two-thirds; and New
Hampshire, where new permit conditions imposed on the state’s largest landfill have
contributed to a state-wide reduction in imports of more than 560,000 tons since


Major Exporters
Six states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and
Massachusetts) each exported more than one million tons of waste to facilities in
other states in the latest reporting period, and ten other states and the District of
Columbia exported more than half a million tons. The Canadian province of Ontario
also exported a substantial amount of municipal waste (about 2,000,000 tons), most
of it to Michigan.
New York, New Jersey, Illinois, and Maryland remained the largest exporters.
Together these four states accounted for 52% of waste exports nationally.
New York’s exports rose to 7,493,130 tons in 2001, according to seven
receiving states, an increase of nearly 700,000 tons over the previous year. The

5 Transfer stations receive waste from collection trucks, compact it, bale it, and load it on
larger trucks for disposal elsewhere.

increase reflects the March 2001 closure of New York City’s Fresh Kills Landfill —
the city’s last disposal facility.
New Jersey’s estimated exports, 5.4 million tons, have also grown dramatically.
In New Jersey’s case, the cause of increased exports is the overturning of the state’s
flow control law, which, until 1997, directed much of the state’s waste to high-cost
local facilities for disposal. The state law was overturned and the state exhausted its
appeals in October 1997. Exports have since grown by about 3 million tons per year.
Illinois’ exports, at 3.1 million tons, declined slightly in 2001, after several years
of rapid growth: despite the decline, the state’s exports in 2001 were still three and
a half times the amount reported for 1995.6 Most of the exports originate in Cook
County (Chicago and its suburbs), which has a relative shortage of disposal capacity.
Illinois as a whole reported a more than doubling of landfill capacity between 1995
and 2000, but Chicago is located near the border of both Indiana and Wisconsin; so
increases in capacity elsewhere in Illinois may not affect disposal decisions in the
metropolitan area.
In all, 13 states (and Ontario, Canada) increased waste exports by more than
100,000 tons each in the period, while 4 states had major decreases. In addition to
the exporters discussed above, Pennsylvania and Maryland showed the largest
increases (although in Pennsylvania’s case, the increased exports were dwarfed by
additional waste entering the state). Among states showing decreased exports,
California showed the largest drop, a reduction of nearly 450,000 tons.
Net Imports and Exports
Table 3 combines import and export data to rank the states by net amounts
imported or exported. The table shows that 25 states were net importers, 22 plus the
District of Columbia were net exporters. Thirty-nine of the 50 states had net imports
or exports exceeding 100,000 tons in the reporting period; 23 exceeded 500,000 tons.
Perhaps most interesting, given the tendency to identify states as either exporters or
importers, 17 states both exported and imported in excess of 100,000 tons of
municipal solid waste.
Several factors are at work here. In the larger states, there are sometimes
differences in available disposal capacity in different regions within the state. Areas
without capacity may be closer to landfills (or may at least find cheaper disposal
options) in other states. A good example is Illinois: the Chicago area, which is close
to two other states, exports significant amounts of waste out of state. Downstate,
however, Illinois has substantial available landfill capacity, and imports about 1
million tons annually from St. Louis and other locations in Missouri.
As noted earlier, the movement of waste also represents the growing
regionalization and consolidation of the waste industry. In 2001, the three largest
firms (Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Republic Services) accounted for 73%

6 Illinois, like most states, does not report waste exports. This export estimate was derived
from data provided by neighboring states.

of total revenues of the industry’s 100 largest firms.7 These large firms offer
integrated waste services, from collection to transfer station to disposal site, in many
locations. Often, they ship waste to their own disposal facility across a border, rather
than dispose of it at an in-state facility owned by a rival. As small landfills continue
to close — the number of U.S. landfills declined 52% between 1993 and 20008
this trend toward regionalization and consolidation is likely to continue. The amount
of waste being shipped across state lines for disposal may rise in this process.
Additional Information
The remainder of this report consists of a table summarizing waste import and
export data, by state. All 50 states and the District of Columbia are listed in
alphabetical order, with data for the amount of waste exported, destination of exports,
amount of waste imported, source of imports, and a state agency contact for
additional information.

7 “Waste Age 100,” Waste Age, June 2002, pp. 42-52.
8 “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, April 1994, p. 51, and December 2001, p.


Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State
Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
The state has no reporting97% to Mississippi; smallThe state has no reportingMostly from Georgia.John Narramore,
system but plans to beginamounts to Georgia andsystem but plans to beginAL Dept. of
Alabamacollecting informationsoon. Surrounding statesTennessee.collecting informationsoon. BioCycle magazineEnvironmentalManagement
report 107,769 tons ofreports 382,000 tons of(334) 271-7764
exports from Alabama.imports to Alabama.
Alaska estimates exportsNearly all to Washington;No imports.N.A.Glenn Miller,
at around 30,000 tons.maybe a small amount toAK Dept. of
Al a s k a Orego n. E nvi r o nme nt a l
iki/CRS-RL31651 Co nse r va t i o n
g/w(907) 465-5153
s.orArizona does not exportNevada, New Mexico260,000 tons in the periodNearly all from California.David Janke,
leaksignificant amounts of4/1/2001 to 3/31/2002.A small amount comesAZ Dept. of
://wikiMSW. There may beflows of less than 100 tonsfrom New Mexico. Verysmall amounts may alsoEnvironmental Quality(607) 207-4173
httpArizonaper year to Nevada andcome from Nevada or
New Mexico. Also, theUtah.
state does not track waste
of the Navajo nation,
which may export waste.
State reports 91,088 tonsState reports Oklahoma,State does not trackMissouriDarlene Hale,
exported in 2001. ThisMissouri, and Louisianaimports. According to theAR Dept. of Pollution
includes all wasteare the main destinations.state, there is probablyControl and Ecology
Arkansasexported, not just MSW. Mississippi also reportsvery little waste being(501) 682-0586

Receiving states reportimports from Arkansas.imported. Missouri reports
comparable amounts.exporting 12,718 tons to
Arkansas in 2001.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
According to California,Nevada and Arizona are28,672 tons in 2000.State does not keep trackJanelle Auyeung,
exports were the major destinations. Aof where waste comesCA Integrated Waste
2000: 746,433 tonssmall amount goes tofrom.Management Board
1999: 1,010,232 tonsWashington.(916) 341-6218
1998: 676,327 tons.
CaliforniaReceiving states reportslightly higher amounts.
Although exports are
substantial, they represent
only about 2% of the
MSW generated in the
iki/CRS-RL31651State does not trackKansas, Nebraska, andState does not trackKansas, Nebraska, NorthGlenn Mallory,
g/wexports. Some very smallNew Mexicoimports. Small amounts ofDakota, and South DakotaCO Dept. of Public Health
s.oramounts of MSW may beMSW may be importedand Environment
leakexported to Kansas,from Kansas and(303) 692-3445

ColoradoNebraska, and NewNebraska. Out-of-state
:// are sometimes
httpdisposed of in the state
from the Dakotas, Kansas,
and Nebraska.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
According to Connecticut,482,049 tons to 75,941 tons of MSW36,617 tons from RhodeJudy Belaval,
303,069 tons of MSWPennsylvania;imported in FY2001Island; 28,535 fromCT Dept. of
were exported in FY2001123,067 tons to Ohio;(7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001).Massachusetts; 10,788Environmental Protection
(7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001).100,000 tons to NY; This does not includefrom New York.(860) 424-3237
This includes only waste 27,323 tons to Mass.40,442 tons of NY waste
reported through transfermanaged at a CT transfer
Connecticutstations and not wastestation and then exported
taken directly out of statefor disposal. Waste
by haulers. Receivingimports have decreased
states report much more: asubstantially in recent
total of 732,439 tonsyears.
received in 4 states in
g/wMSW exports in 200197% to Pennsylvania andThe state operates 3N.A.Jamie Rutherford,
s.orwere 14,518 tons,Virginia. Small amountslandfills that are allDE Dept. of Natural
leakaccording to Delaware. reported by New York andprohibited from acceptingResources and
Receiving states reportOhio.out of state waste. There isEnvironmental Control,
://wiki83,689 tons. one private facility that is(302) 739-3689

httppermitted as an industrial
waste facility that has in
Delawarethe past imported about
400,000 tons of
construction and
demolition waste.
However, most of the
waste going to that facility
now is probably from in-

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
Receiving states report aVirginia (97%)New York reports sendingMostly Maryland.Sybil Hammond,
total of 966,052 tons inPennsylvania (3%)800 tons of MSW to D.C.D.C. Dept. of Public 2001. DC also importsWorks
District of Columbiasubstantial amounts ofwaste from Maryland to(202) 673-6833
transfer stations located in
the District. None of this
waste is disposed in DC.
The state does not trackGeorgia (93%)The state does not trackN.A.Peter Goren,
exports. Georgia andSouth Carolina (7%)imports. There is littleFL Dept. of
South Carolina reportincentive to import, sinceEnvironmental Protection
iki/CRS-RL31651receiving 519,251 tons ofMSW from Florida. disposal is less expensivein Georgia.(850) 488-0300
g/wFloridaExports increased by two-
s.orthirds in the most recent
leakreport, but still represent
less than 2% of Florida’s
://wikiwaste generation.
The state has noMostly to Alabama. South964,285 tons in FY 200250% of the waste comesScott Henson,
information on exports. Carolina and Tennessee(7/1/2001 to 6/30/2002). from Florida, 21% fromGA Dept. of Natural
GeorgiaCRS estimates 350,000tons of exports based oneach report about 20,000tons from Georgia.Waste imports havequadrupled since FYNew Jersey, 11% fromSouth Carolina, 6% fromResources(404) 362-4533
information available for1998.Rhode Island, 4% from
three receiving states.New York.
No exports of MSW.N.A.No imports of MSW.N.A.Gary Siu,
HawaiiHI Dept. of Health
(808) 586-4244
Idaho estimates 134,062Washington (82,928 tons)State estimates 12,5837,103 tons from Oregon;Dean Ehlert,
Idahotons of exports.Oregon (27,956 tons)Montana (23,178 tons).tons of imports.5,475 tons from Nevada; 5tons from UtahID Dept. ofEnvironmental Quality
(208) 373-0416

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
3,084,880 tons in 2001,1,336,000 tons to IndianaThe state reportsMissouri (72%); IowaEllen Gambach,
according to six receiving(CRS estimate based onimporting 1,440,804 tons(20%); Wisconsin (4%);IL Environmental
states.Indiana data). 865,000in 2001.Indiana (3%); KentuckyProtection Agency
Illinoistons to Wisconsin. (1%); negligible amounts(217) 782-9288
779,000 tons to Michigan. from 6 other states.
Smaller amounts to three
other states.
Four receiving statesMichigan (536,033 tons),1,456,699 tons of MSW in92% from Illinois. TheMichelle Weddle,
report receiving a total ofOhio (180,407 tons),2001.remainder mostly fromIN Dept of Environmental
927,245 tons fromKentucky (161,858 tons),Ohio, Kentucky, andManagement
Indiana. Indiana reportsIllinois (48,947 tons).Michigan.(317) 233-4624
iki/CRS-RL31651Indiana335,190 tons of exports in2001, but this includes
g/wonly waste exported by
s.ortransfer stations, not waste
leaktaken directly out of state
by haulers.
httpIn FY2001 (7/1/2000-345,372 tons to Illinois;Iowa imported 505,598478,641 tons (95%) fromTammie Krausman,
6/30/2001), Iowa exported 24,599 tons to Nebraska;tons of MSW in FY2001Minnesota; smallerIA Dept of Natural
Iowa390,917 tons of MSW. 18,833 tons to Missouri;(7/1/2000-6/30/2001).amounts from Missouri,Resources
2,113 tons to Wisconsin.Nebraska, Illinois, South(515) 281-8382
Dakota, and Wisconsin
53,111 tons exported inMissouri and Oklahoma.636,847 tons in 2001,608,212 tons (96%) fromKent Foerster,
Kansas2001. Oklahoma reportssubstantially higherwhich was 19% of totalMSW disposed of in theMissouri; the remainderfrom Oklahoma andKS Dept. of Health andEnvironment
amounts.state.Nebraska.(785) 296-1540

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
The state does not trackTennessee (58%)701,442 tons of MSW379,820 tons (54%) fromCarol Sole,
exports. Four neighboringOhio (21%)imported in 2001.Ohio; 161,858 tons (23%)KY Dept. for
states report 275,341 tonsIndiana (18%)from Indiana; 119,617Environmental Protection
Kentuckyof Kentucky exports.Illinois (3%).tons (17%) from W. Va.;(502) 564-6716 x216
35,851 tons (5%) from
Tennessee. Small amts.
from 4 other states.
No tracking system, butMississippi. SmallNo tracking. MississippiMississippiDennis Duszynski,
LouisianaMississippi reports that itreceived 103,539 tons amounts may go to Texas,as well.reports its border areasmay export small amountsLA Dept. ofEnvironmental Quality
from Louisiana in Louisiana.(225) 765-0230
iki/CRS-RL3165150,862 tons in 1999, plus19,000 to New Brunswick164,527 tons of MSW inMassachusetts (74%); theGeorge MacDonald,
g/wMaine40,412 tons of(Canada); most of the from New Hampshire.ME Dept of
s.orconstruction andto New Hampshire.Environmental Protection
leakdemolition waste.(207) 287-5759
://wikiMaryland reported1,718,468 tons to Virginia;39,926 tons imported inDelaware, Pennsylvania,Frank Diller,
http1,547,065 tons of MSWexported in 2000. 361,710 tons toPennsylvania. 2001. Maryland alsoimported 422,945 tons ofVirginia, West Virginia,and D.C.MD Dept of theEnvironment
MarylandReceiving states, whichC&D waste.(410) 631-4143

have reported data for
2001, reported receiving
2,081,230 tons.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
1,015,042 tons exported in327,576 tons to South67,247 tons of MSW27,323 tons fromBrian Holdridge,
2001; nearly 400,000 tonsCarolina; 273,111 tons toimported in 2001; 141,135Connecticut; 21,196 tonsMA Dept. of
of other waste (mainlyNew York; 200,242 tons totons of other wastefrom New Hampshire;Environmental Protection
construction andNew Hampshire; 155,314(mainly construction and16,189 tons from Rhode(617) 292-5578
demolition waste andtons to Maine; smallerdemolition waste, tires,Island; 2,078 tons from
tires).amounts to Connecticut,and ash).Vermont; 461 tons from
MassachusettsOhio, Pennsylvania, RhodeNew York.
Island, and Canada. New
York reports receiving
450,000 tons of MSW in
2001, substantially more
than Massachusetts
iki/CRS-RL31651 reports.
g/wThe state does not trackOhio (55%)In FY2001, 10/1/2000 -Ontario, Canada (50%),Lynn Dumroese,
s.orexports, but twoIndiana (45%).9/30/2001, imports wereIllinois (22%), IndianaMI Dept. of
leakMichiganneighboring states3,597,729 tons, 757,000(15%), Ohio (9%),Environmental Quality
reported 146,358 tonstons more than in FY2000.Wisconsin (4%)(517) 373-4738
://wikifrom Michigan in 2001, an(Data converted fromImports from Ontario are
httpincrease of 72%.cubic yards by CRS). growing rapidly.
671,800 tons in 2001, a372,300 tons to Iowa;Imports wereN.A.Jim Chiles,
Minnesotaslight decrease from704,878 tons in 2000.239,700 tons to Wisconsin; 58,400 to North Dakota; inconsequential.MN Pollution ControlAgency
1,400 to South Dakota .(651) 296-7273
State does not trackAny exports most likely go466,399 tons of MSW in230,237 tons (49%) fromPradip Bhowal,
exports, but believes smallto Alabama, Louisiana,2001.Tennessee; 104,550 tonsMS Dept. of
amounts of waste areand Tennessee.(22%) from Alabama;Environmental Quality
Mississippibeing exported fromisolated areas” near the103,539 tons (22%) fromLouisiana; 27,910 tons(601) 961-5082

borders. Tennessee(6%) from Arkansas.
reports receiving 74,515
tons of Mississippi waste.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
According to Missouri,Illinois (62%),178,032 tons in 2001.80,441 tons from Illinois;Debbie Sessler,
1,439,834 tons in 2001.Kansas (36%).75,937 tons fromMO Dept. of Natural
MissouriMSW definition includessome industrial waste. Small amounts toArkansas, Iowa,Arkansas; 11,135 tonsfrom Kansas; 10,159 tonsResources(573) 751-5401
Receiving states reportTennessee, and Indiana.from Iowa.
1,671,162 tons.
The state says it sends aNorth Dakota33,964 tons in 2001.27,373 tons (81%) fromPat Crowley,
tiny little bit” to NorthIdaho; small amountsMT Dept. of Health and
MontanaDakota.from North Dakota,Environmental Sciences
Washington, and(406) 444-5294
W yo mi ng.
iki/CRS-RL31651Nebraska does not collectIowa and Kansas.Nebraska does not collectMostly from Iowa. SomeKeith Powell,
g/wannual data on wasteannual data on wastefrom South Dakota.NE Dept. of
s.orexports. From 7/1/2000 -imports. A one-timeEnvironmental Quality
leak6/30/2001, Iowa reportssurvey reported 122,500(402) 471-4210
receiving 9,255 tons. Intons in 1997. Probably
://wikiNebraskacalendar year 2001,hasnt been much change
httpKansas reports receivingsince then, according to
8,645.the state. Iowa reports
sending 24,599 tons from
7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001.
There are no exports fromIdaho532,615 tons in 2001,Almost all fromLes Gould,
Nevada according to theabout 16% of total MSWCalifornia. Tiny amountsNV Division of
Nevadastate. Idaho reportsdisposed in Nevada.from Arizona and Utah.Environmental Protection
receiving 5,475 tons from(775) 687-4670 x3018
Neva d a .
57,000 tons in 2001.Massachusetts and New250,000 tons in 2001, lessMainly Massachusetts.Pierce Rigrod,
New HampshireYorkthan half of what wasimported in 1999.NH Dept. ofEnvironmental Services
(603) 271-3713

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
5,431,121 tons in 2001,88% to Pennsylvania, 5%892,394 tons in 2000, aNearly all from NewRay Worob,
according to six importingto Ohio, 4% to Georgia,slight increase from 1999.York.NJ Dept. of
New Jerseystates. New Jersey reports3% to Virginia. Environmental Protection
substantially less:(609) 984-6903
2,651,000 tons in 2000.
The state says there are noArizona and TexasIn 2001, 750,000 tons ofColorado, Texas, andJohn OConnell,
exports: New MexicosMSW were imported,maquiladora waste fromNM Environment Dept.
tipping fees are lower thanmore than triple theMexican border areas.(505) 827-2385
those in surroundingamount two years earlier.
New Mexicostates. However, TexasThe imported waste
and Arizona both reportrepresented 25% of all
iki/CRS-RL31651receiving small amountsof waste from Newwaste landfilled in thestate in 2001.
leakSeven importing states reportPrimarily Pennsylvania (4.8New York estimates450,000 tons (54%) fromGerard Wagner,
a total of 7,493,130 tonsmillion tons), Virginia (1.1839,700 tons wereMassachusetts; 200,000NY State Dept. of
://wikifrom New York. New Yorkfacilities reported exports ofmillion tons), New Jersey(879,000 tons), and Ohioimported in 2001 fromtons (24%) fromEnvironmental
http4,900,100 tons in 2001, but(664,000 tons).selected states”. WastePennsylvania; 100,000Conservation
these data are believed to beimports to New York havegrown by 700,000 tonstons (12%) fromConnecticut; lesser(518) 402-8692

inco mp lete.
New Yorksince 1998.amounts from Vermont,New Jersey, New
Hampshire, Maine,
Maryland, and other
states. In addition,
Ontario, Canada reports
sending 190,000 tons of
MSW to New York.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
900,743 tons in FY2001Virginia, South Carolina,21,614 tons in FY2001 VirginiaPaul Chrisman,
(July 2000 to June 2001),incidental amounts toNC Dept. of Environment
North Carolinaa decline of 206,000 tonsfrom the previous year,Georgia and Tennesseeand Natural Resources(919) 733-0692 x254
but still an 8-fold increase
since FY 1996.
The state does not trackMontana (3,735 tons)103,382 tons MSW inMainly from Minnesota;Steve Tillotson,
MSW exports. Two statesPennsylvania (11,6832000.small amounts from SouthND Dept. of Health
North Dakotareport receiving a total oftons).Dakota and Montana.(701) 328-5166
15,418 tons of MSW from
North Dakota.
iki/CRS-RL31651986,693 tons in 2001.Mostly to Kentucky (46%)Ohio reports importingNew York (33%),Michelle Kenton,
g/wand Michigan (31%). 1,988,753 tons of MSW inPennsylvania (19%), NewOH Environmental
s.orLesser amounts to West2001, a 200,000 tonJersey (13%), IndianaProtection Agency
leakVirginia (12%),increase from 2000.(9%), Connecticut (6%),(614) 728-5368
OhioPennsylvania (9%), andand West Virginia (6%)
://wikiIndiana (3%).accounted for the bulk of
httpimports. The other 14%
came from 20 states, DC,
and the Virgin Islands.
The state does not trackKansasCRS estimates 125,000Mostly from Kansas.John Roberts,
waste exports but does nottons in 2001. OklahomaArkansas and Texas alsoOK Dept. of
believe much waste isdoes not track wastereport sending MSW toEnvironmental Quality
exported. Kansas reportsimports, but the state isOklahoma.(405) 702-5100

receiving 19,990 tons ofaware that in September
OklahomaMSW from Oklahoma in2001. 2001, the City of Wichita,Kansas began exporting
about 1,500 tons per day
of MSW to Oklahoma for
disposal. In addition,
small amounts come from
Arkansas and Texas.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
Michigan reportsMichigan, New YorkNone.N.A.Bruce Pope,
receiving 1,786,284 tonsOntario Ministry of
of waste from Ontario,Environment and Energy
Ontario, Canada10/1/2000 - 9/30/2001. (416) 325-4420
Ontario estimates that
another 190,000 tons is
disposed in New York.
19,384 tons of MSW inSome to Idaho, most to1,301,882 tons of MSW inMost from Seattle-area inJudy Henderson,
Oregon2000.Washington.2000.Washington; small amountfrom California and Idaho.OR Dept. ofEnvironmental Quality
(503) 229-5521
iki/CRS-RL31651The state does not track64% to Ohio,10,666,090 tons of MSWNew York and New JerseySally Lohman,
g/wexports. According to35% to New York,in 2001, 30% of the natlaccounted for nearly 90%PA Dept. of
s.orneighboring states, 1% to, an increase of aboutof MSW imports, at aboutEnvironmental Protection
leakPennsylvania exported900,000 tons from 2000. 45% each. 482,049 tons,(717) 787-7382
Pennsylvania576,525 tons of MSW inThe state also importedor 5%, came from
://wiki2001.1,938,857 tons of sludge,Connecticut; 361,410 tons
httpindustrial, residual, C&D,(4%) from Maryland. The
ash, and asbestos waste, arest came from 8 other
decrease from 2000. states and DC.
121,631 tons in 2000, allConnecticut about 36,000121,930 tons in 2000,N.A.Robert Schmidt,
of which was wastetons, Massachusetts aboutnearly all of this wasteRI Dept. of Environmental
Rhode Islandimported to a transfer41,000. Georgia reportswas imported to transferManagement
station and then exportedreceiving 56,883 tons.stations and then exported(401) 222-2797 x7260

elsewhere for disposal.for disposal.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
101,603 tons in FY2001GeorgiaThe state reports that it345,570 tons (60%) fromCeleste Duckett,
(7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001).imported 579,298 tons ofMassachusetts; 133,986SC Dept. of Health and
defined” MSW intons (23%) from Texas;Environmental Control
FY2001 (7/1/2000 -The remainder from(803) 896-4226
South Carolina6/30/2001), whichincludes residential,Florida, New Jersey,Georgia, and North
commercial, institutionalCarolina.
and industrial
wa s t e s .
The state does not trackIowaThe state does not trackMinnesota Jim Wente,
iki/CRS-RL31651exports. A small amountof exporting may occur,imports. A small amountof importing may occur,SD Dept. of Environmentand Natural Resources
g/wSouth Dakotabut it is not significant. but it is not significant. (605) 773-3153
s.orIowa reports 2,400 tons ofMinnesota reports sending
leakwaste from South Dakota1,400 tons to South
in FY 2001.Dakota.
httpThe state does not trackMississippi (76%)329,036 tons in 2001.159,772 tons (49%) fromA. Wayne Brashear,
waste exports, butKentucky (12%)Kentucky; 74,515 tonsTN Dept. of Environment
neighboring states reportVirginia (9%)(23%) from Mississippi;and Conservation
303,882 tons of TennesseeGeorgia (3%).41,725 tons (13%) from(615) 532-8010

Tennesseewaste exports.North Carolina; 21,324tons (6%) from Virginia;
19,547 tons (6%) from
Georgia; the rest from
Arkansas, Missouri, and

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
No reporting requirementNew Mexico is probablyIn FY2001 (9/1/2000 -Louisiana, New Mexico,Lynne Haase,
for exported waste.the major destination.8/31/2001), 34,173 tons ofOklahoma, and Mexico.TX Commission on
Estimates based onTexas says waste mostMSW were imported.Some smaller amountsEnvironmental Quality
regional plans showlikely goes to Newmay come from other(512) 239-6613
Texas518,698 tons of residentialMexico, Louisiana, andstates.
and commercial MSWOklahoma. South Carolina
were exported to otheralso reports receiving
states from Sept. 1,1999 tosignificant quantities of
Aug. 31, 2000.Texas waste.
As in 2000, about 1,000Nevada5,967 tons in 2001, a largeMassachusettsJeff Emmons,
tons of 2001 MSW wentdecrease from 2000UT Dept. of
iki/CRS-RL31651Utahfrom Wendover, Utah toWendover, Nevada. There(66,000 tons).Environmental Quality(801)538-6748
g/wmight be some small
s.oramount of exports from
leakIndian reservations.
://wiki121,546 tons in 2000, an74,982 tons to New York;No reported imports.N.A.Julie Hackbarth,
httpincrease from 88,350 in44,988 tons to NewVT Dept. of
Vermont1999.Hampshire; 1,576 tons toEnvironmental
M a ssa c huse t t s . Co nse r va t i o n
(802) 241-3446
The state does not trackNorth Carolina (46%)4,098,684 tons of MSW in97% from 3 states andKathy Frahm,
MSW exports. ThreeTennessee (45%)2001, plus 720,782 tons ofDC: 1,443,724 tons fromVA Dept. of
states report 47,419 tonsPennsylvania (9%). other waste (mostlyMaryland; 1,120,111 tonsEnvironmental Quality
Virginiaof exports from Virginia.sludge, incinerator ash,from New York; 936,387(804) 698-4376

and C&D waste).tons from DC; 486,942
tons from NC; less than
3% from 13 other states.

Amount ofDestination ofAmount ofSources of
StateMSW ExportedExported WasteMSW ImportedImported WasteState Contact
949,685 tons in 2000.Oregon116,365 tons in 2000, a41,808 tons from CanadaEllen Caywood,
decrease from 243,292(mainly BritishWA Dept. of Ecology
tons in 1999, mainly dueColumbia); California,(360) 407-6132
Washingtonto a landfill losing a30,139 tons; Idaho, 24,035
California contract.tons; Alaska, 20,129 tons;
Oregon 198 tons;
Antarctica, 56 tons.
No tracking system. Ohio,Ohio and Kentucky (36%The state has no trackingOhio reports shippingAnne Howell,
Kentucky, Pennsylvania,each), Pennsylvaniasystem, but estimates that119,077 tons to WestWV Division of
West Virginiaand Virginia reported(16%), Virginia (12%).it imports about 200,000Virginia in 2001. OtherEnvironmental Protection
331,635 tons from Westtons of MSW per year.sources, N.A.(304) 558-4253
iki/CRS-RL31651Vir ginia.
g/wThe state does not collectMichigan (146,442 tons)1,106,928 tons in 2001.865,404 tons (78%) fromWayne Ringquist,
s.orexport data, but threeIllinois (57,049 tons)Illinois; 238,836 tonsWI Dept. of Natural
leakWisconsinreceiving states reportIndiana (1,340 tons).(22%) from Minnesota.Resources
204,831 tons of WisconsinSmall amounts from Iowa(608)267-7557
://wikiexports in 2001, aboutand Michigan.
http18% less than in 1999.
The state does not collectN.A.The state does not collectN.A.Bob Doctor,
Wyomingexport data. A few tons aday may leave the state.import data. A few tons aday may enter the state.WY Dept. ofEnvironmental Quality
(307) 473-3468
. = not available
CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials.